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Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-phytosphingosine (CER [NP]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum on the left side of each section) for 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NP]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–10.7×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NP]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NP]-d31 concentration above the detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. Area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions as labeled in B for five adjacent lines of pixels.Notes: Blue: ceramide concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M. Scale bar is 100 µm.
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f4-ccid-8-329: Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-phytosphingosine (CER [NP]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum on the left side of each section) for 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NP]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–10.7×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NP]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NP]-d31 concentration above the detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. Area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions as labeled in B for five adjacent lines of pixels.Notes: Blue: ceramide concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M. Scale bar is 100 µm.

Mentions: Penetration studies with CER [NP]-d31 (Figure 4B) show similar IR concentration profiles to CER [NS]-d31 (~4–10 mM) with visible images of the same CER [NP]-d31-treated sections shown in Figure 4A. Results are shown for both 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. Figure 4C, with skin regions where CER concentration was below the detection limit masked in gray, depicts a heterogeneous spatial distribution of CER [NP]-d31 concentrations, localized in pockets on or within the SC surface and in deep glyph areas. The line plots shown in Figure 4D suggest that CER [NP]-d31 was heterogeneously distributed on the skin surface with small pockets at ~8 mM penetrating ~10–15 µm into SC. There was no significant difference between the 24- and 48-hour incubation times. Similar results were found comparing incubation times for CER [NS]-d31 (data not shown).


Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-phytosphingosine (CER [NP]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum on the left side of each section) for 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NP]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–10.7×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NP]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NP]-d31 concentration above the detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. Area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions as labeled in B for five adjacent lines of pixels.Notes: Blue: ceramide concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M. Scale bar is 100 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493983&req=5

f4-ccid-8-329: Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-phytosphingosine (CER [NP]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum on the left side of each section) for 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NP]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–10.7×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NP]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NP]-d31 concentration above the detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. Area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions as labeled in B for five adjacent lines of pixels.Notes: Blue: ceramide concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M. Scale bar is 100 µm.
Mentions: Penetration studies with CER [NP]-d31 (Figure 4B) show similar IR concentration profiles to CER [NS]-d31 (~4–10 mM) with visible images of the same CER [NP]-d31-treated sections shown in Figure 4A. Results are shown for both 24- and 48-hour incubation periods. Figure 4C, with skin regions where CER concentration was below the detection limit masked in gray, depicts a heterogeneous spatial distribution of CER [NP]-d31 concentrations, localized in pockets on or within the SC surface and in deep glyph areas. The line plots shown in Figure 4D suggest that CER [NP]-d31 was heterogeneously distributed on the skin surface with small pockets at ~8 mM penetrating ~10–15 µm into SC. There was no significant difference between the 24- and 48-hour incubation times. Similar results were found comparing incubation times for CER [NS]-d31 (data not shown).

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus