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Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Visible image of a skin section with a deep, broad glyph. (B) Infrared image of the N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) concentration profile for the same section. (C) Concentration image of the region marked with the white box in B, enlarged and rotated clockwise, along with color-coded lines highlighting the pixels from which the line plots in D originate. (D) Line plots of CER [NS]-d31 concentration and Amide II peak height as marked in C.Notes: Closed symbol: CER [NS]-d31 concentration; open symbol: Amide II peak height. Cyan dashed line indicates the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU). Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: SC, stratum corneum.
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f3-ccid-8-329: (A) Visible image of a skin section with a deep, broad glyph. (B) Infrared image of the N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) concentration profile for the same section. (C) Concentration image of the region marked with the white box in B, enlarged and rotated clockwise, along with color-coded lines highlighting the pixels from which the line plots in D originate. (D) Line plots of CER [NS]-d31 concentration and Amide II peak height as marked in C.Notes: Closed symbol: CER [NS]-d31 concentration; open symbol: Amide II peak height. Cyan dashed line indicates the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU). Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: SC, stratum corneum.

Mentions: Since we observed CER [NS]-d31 accumulating in glyph regions at relatively high concentrations, it was of interest to further explore these regions. Figure 3A shows a visible image of a skin section with a deep glyph. Figure 3B displays the corresponding IR image of CER [NS]-d31 concentration, where a high CER concentration can be observed in the deep glyph region. Figure 3C and D focus on the CER concentration within the glyph area marked with a white box in Figure 3B. This concentration image has been rotated clockwise and enlarged in Figure 3C, while Figure 3D displays several line plots of CER concentration and Amide II peak height at the regions marked in 3C. The blue solid line plot indicates the CER concentration just at the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU), whereas the other line plots display the CER concentration within the top ~18µm. CER concentrations can be observed to decrease rapidly from ~20–28 mM in the top ~6 µm to approximately the detection limit of 3.5 mM at a depth of 18–20 µm.


Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

(A) Visible image of a skin section with a deep, broad glyph. (B) Infrared image of the N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) concentration profile for the same section. (C) Concentration image of the region marked with the white box in B, enlarged and rotated clockwise, along with color-coded lines highlighting the pixels from which the line plots in D originate. (D) Line plots of CER [NS]-d31 concentration and Amide II peak height as marked in C.Notes: Closed symbol: CER [NS]-d31 concentration; open symbol: Amide II peak height. Cyan dashed line indicates the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU). Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: SC, stratum corneum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493983&req=5

f3-ccid-8-329: (A) Visible image of a skin section with a deep, broad glyph. (B) Infrared image of the N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) concentration profile for the same section. (C) Concentration image of the region marked with the white box in B, enlarged and rotated clockwise, along with color-coded lines highlighting the pixels from which the line plots in D originate. (D) Line plots of CER [NS]-d31 concentration and Amide II peak height as marked in C.Notes: Closed symbol: CER [NS]-d31 concentration; open symbol: Amide II peak height. Cyan dashed line indicates the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU). Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: SC, stratum corneum.
Mentions: Since we observed CER [NS]-d31 accumulating in glyph regions at relatively high concentrations, it was of interest to further explore these regions. Figure 3A shows a visible image of a skin section with a deep glyph. Figure 3B displays the corresponding IR image of CER [NS]-d31 concentration, where a high CER concentration can be observed in the deep glyph region. Figure 3C and D focus on the CER concentration within the glyph area marked with a white box in Figure 3B. This concentration image has been rotated clockwise and enlarged in Figure 3C, while Figure 3D displays several line plots of CER concentration and Amide II peak height at the regions marked in 3C. The blue solid line plot indicates the CER concentration just at the surface of the SC (Amide II peak height ~0.2 AU), whereas the other line plots display the CER concentration within the top ~18µm. CER concentrations can be observed to decrease rapidly from ~20–28 mM in the top ~6 µm to approximately the detection limit of 3.5 mM at a depth of 18–20 µm.

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus