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Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum [SC] on the left side of each section). (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–5.5×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NS]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NS]-d31 concentration above detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. The area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions labeled in B; three to five adjacent lines of pixels are shown.Notes: Blue lines and symbols: ceramide concentration; red lines and symbols: Amide II peak height. Magenta dash lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M of CER. Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: CER, ceramide.
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f2-ccid-8-329: Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum [SC] on the left side of each section). (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–5.5×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NS]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NS]-d31 concentration above detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. The area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions labeled in B; three to five adjacent lines of pixels are shown.Notes: Blue lines and symbols: ceramide concentration; red lines and symbols: Amide II peak height. Magenta dash lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M of CER. Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: CER, ceramide.

Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates the spatial distribution and concentration of CER [NS]-d31 penetration in skin after a 24-hour incubation period. Figure 2A displays the visible micrographs of several skin sections whereas Figure 2B highlights IR images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. Each IR image is comprised of 2,560 unique IR spectra (each pixel is observable in the image) with the CER [NS]-d31 concentration determined from the CD2 stretching region. CER [NS]-d31 appears to be heterogeneously distributed and localized in pockets close to the skin surface. Figure 2C more clearly indicates the distribution of CER [NS]-d31 where regions below the detection limit are displayed in gray. Determining CER penetration into the skin is complicated by the nonplanar nature of the skin surface; glyphs and other features result in a complex topography. To more closely delineate CER penetration into the SC, as opposed to CER that remains on top of the SC, line plots of CER concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions in Figure 2D. In the SC, Amide II band intensity predominantly arises from keratin. The surface of the skin is defined at the half-maximum Amide II peak height (~0.2 AU in the line plots). In the glyph set of plots, labeled “1” in Figure 2D, there is high CER concentration at ~0–10 µm from the image edge, in the region where the Amide II peak height is less than 0.2 AU. This demonstrates that there was a significant amount of CER [NS]-d31 within the glyph outside the SC that did not actually penetrate into the SC. There is some overlap, however, at ~25 µm from the image edge where the Amide II intensity indicates the surface of the SC and where CER [NS]-d31 concentration is ~0.008–0.015 M within the SC. A similar phenomenon is also observed in line plots labeled “2” in Figure 2D in a non-glyph region with a relatively lower concentration of CER. The line plots labeled “3” were chosen at a place where CER was not observed in Figure 2B, and serve as a baseline for analysis of line plots 1 and 2. In summary, CER [NS]-d31 was heterogeneously distributed on top of the skin surface with small pockets of relatively low concentration penetrating ~10–15 µm into the SC.


Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum [SC] on the left side of each section). (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–5.5×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NS]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NS]-d31 concentration above detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. The area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions labeled in B; three to five adjacent lines of pixels are shown.Notes: Blue lines and symbols: ceramide concentration; red lines and symbols: Amide II peak height. Magenta dash lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M of CER. Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: CER, ceramide.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493983&req=5

f2-ccid-8-329: Spatial distribution and concentration of N-palmitoyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (CER [NS]-d31) penetration in skin. (A) Visible micrographs of microtomed skin sections (stratum corneum [SC] on the left side of each section). (B) Infrared (IR) images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. The concentration range of 3.5–5.5×10−3 M is shown to highlight the distribution of CER [NS]-d31. The area outside the skin is shown in gray. (C) IR images of CER [NS]-d31 concentration above detection limit (±1 standard deviation). The concentration below the detection limit is shown in gray. The area outside the skin is shown in white. (D) Line plots of ceramide concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions labeled in B; three to five adjacent lines of pixels are shown.Notes: Blue lines and symbols: ceramide concentration; red lines and symbols: Amide II peak height. Magenta dash lines indicate the detection limit of 3.5×10−3 M of CER. Scale bar is 100 µm.Abbreviation: CER, ceramide.
Mentions: Figure 2 illustrates the spatial distribution and concentration of CER [NS]-d31 penetration in skin after a 24-hour incubation period. Figure 2A displays the visible micrographs of several skin sections whereas Figure 2B highlights IR images (of the same sections) of CER [NS]-d31 concentration. Each IR image is comprised of 2,560 unique IR spectra (each pixel is observable in the image) with the CER [NS]-d31 concentration determined from the CD2 stretching region. CER [NS]-d31 appears to be heterogeneously distributed and localized in pockets close to the skin surface. Figure 2C more clearly indicates the distribution of CER [NS]-d31 where regions below the detection limit are displayed in gray. Determining CER penetration into the skin is complicated by the nonplanar nature of the skin surface; glyphs and other features result in a complex topography. To more closely delineate CER penetration into the SC, as opposed to CER that remains on top of the SC, line plots of CER concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between glyph and non-glyph regions in Figure 2D. In the SC, Amide II band intensity predominantly arises from keratin. The surface of the skin is defined at the half-maximum Amide II peak height (~0.2 AU in the line plots). In the glyph set of plots, labeled “1” in Figure 2D, there is high CER concentration at ~0–10 µm from the image edge, in the region where the Amide II peak height is less than 0.2 AU. This demonstrates that there was a significant amount of CER [NS]-d31 within the glyph outside the SC that did not actually penetrate into the SC. There is some overlap, however, at ~25 µm from the image edge where the Amide II intensity indicates the surface of the SC and where CER [NS]-d31 concentration is ~0.008–0.015 M within the SC. A similar phenomenon is also observed in line plots labeled “2” in Figure 2D in a non-glyph region with a relatively lower concentration of CER. The line plots labeled “3” were chosen at a place where CER was not observed in Figure 2B, and serve as a baseline for analysis of line plots 1 and 2. In summary, CER [NS]-d31 was heterogeneously distributed on top of the skin surface with small pockets of relatively low concentration penetrating ~10–15 µm into the SC.

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus