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The Neuroprotective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine Against Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Activating PGC-1α in Rats.

Hu J, Lang Y, Cao Y, Zhang T, Lu H - Neurochem. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis.These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival.The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

ABSTRACT
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been suggested to have neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined these effects and the corresponding mechanism. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of TMP against contusive SCI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. Each group was divided into subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury. Laminectomy was performed in all groups, followed by contusive SCI establishment in the TMP and NS groups. TMP (80 mg/kg) was injected thereafter daily from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group, which was replaced by equal volume of normal saline in the NS group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale was measured at different time points post-injury to appraise locomotor functional recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to assess the spatio-temporal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), while western blot was adopted to detect the effect of TMP on PGC-1α. Neural apoptotic changes and neuronal survival were evaluated using the TUNEL method and Nissl staining, respectively. TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis. These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival. The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) treatment on neural apoptosis. Representative TUNEL staining (a) shows that apoptotic cells in T10 spinal cord were minimal in the sham group, but numerous in the normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. At 7 days post-injury (dpi), the apoptotic rate decreased in the TMP group compared with that of the NS group. Cell nuclei are stained blue. Black arrows indicate typical positive apoptotic staining. Scale bar 50 μm. The quantitative data (b) shows that the TUNEL-positive percentage in the TMP group (n = 5) was significantly lower than the NS group (n = 5) at 7 dpi. **P < 0.01 comparison between the TMP and NS group
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Fig5: Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) treatment on neural apoptosis. Representative TUNEL staining (a) shows that apoptotic cells in T10 spinal cord were minimal in the sham group, but numerous in the normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. At 7 days post-injury (dpi), the apoptotic rate decreased in the TMP group compared with that of the NS group. Cell nuclei are stained blue. Black arrows indicate typical positive apoptotic staining. Scale bar 50 μm. The quantitative data (b) shows that the TUNEL-positive percentage in the TMP group (n = 5) was significantly lower than the NS group (n = 5) at 7 dpi. **P < 0.01 comparison between the TMP and NS group

Mentions: The apoptotic change of neural cells was measured by TUNEL staining. In the Sham group, there was minimal apoptosis, so the TUNEL-positive percentage was extremely low. In contrast, the TUNEL-positive percentage was high in both the NS and TMP groups. However, TMP treatment significantly decreased the apoptosis rate of contusive SCI. At 7 days post-injury the TUNEL-positive percentage was approximately 28 and 11 %, respectively in the NS group and TMP group; the apoptosis rate of the TMP group decreased by about 60 % relative to the NS group (Fig. 5).Fig. 5


The Neuroprotective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine Against Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Activating PGC-1α in Rats.

Hu J, Lang Y, Cao Y, Zhang T, Lu H - Neurochem. Res. (2015)

Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) treatment on neural apoptosis. Representative TUNEL staining (a) shows that apoptotic cells in T10 spinal cord were minimal in the sham group, but numerous in the normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. At 7 days post-injury (dpi), the apoptotic rate decreased in the TMP group compared with that of the NS group. Cell nuclei are stained blue. Black arrows indicate typical positive apoptotic staining. Scale bar 50 μm. The quantitative data (b) shows that the TUNEL-positive percentage in the TMP group (n = 5) was significantly lower than the NS group (n = 5) at 7 dpi. **P < 0.01 comparison between the TMP and NS group
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Fig5: Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) treatment on neural apoptosis. Representative TUNEL staining (a) shows that apoptotic cells in T10 spinal cord were minimal in the sham group, but numerous in the normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. At 7 days post-injury (dpi), the apoptotic rate decreased in the TMP group compared with that of the NS group. Cell nuclei are stained blue. Black arrows indicate typical positive apoptotic staining. Scale bar 50 μm. The quantitative data (b) shows that the TUNEL-positive percentage in the TMP group (n = 5) was significantly lower than the NS group (n = 5) at 7 dpi. **P < 0.01 comparison between the TMP and NS group
Mentions: The apoptotic change of neural cells was measured by TUNEL staining. In the Sham group, there was minimal apoptosis, so the TUNEL-positive percentage was extremely low. In contrast, the TUNEL-positive percentage was high in both the NS and TMP groups. However, TMP treatment significantly decreased the apoptosis rate of contusive SCI. At 7 days post-injury the TUNEL-positive percentage was approximately 28 and 11 %, respectively in the NS group and TMP group; the apoptosis rate of the TMP group decreased by about 60 % relative to the NS group (Fig. 5).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis.These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival.The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

ABSTRACT
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been suggested to have neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined these effects and the corresponding mechanism. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of TMP against contusive SCI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. Each group was divided into subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury. Laminectomy was performed in all groups, followed by contusive SCI establishment in the TMP and NS groups. TMP (80 mg/kg) was injected thereafter daily from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group, which was replaced by equal volume of normal saline in the NS group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale was measured at different time points post-injury to appraise locomotor functional recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to assess the spatio-temporal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), while western blot was adopted to detect the effect of TMP on PGC-1α. Neural apoptotic changes and neuronal survival were evaluated using the TUNEL method and Nissl staining, respectively. TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis. These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival. The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus