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The Neuroprotective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine Against Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Activating PGC-1α in Rats.

Hu J, Lang Y, Cao Y, Zhang T, Lu H - Neurochem. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis.These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival.The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

ABSTRACT
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been suggested to have neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined these effects and the corresponding mechanism. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of TMP against contusive SCI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. Each group was divided into subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury. Laminectomy was performed in all groups, followed by contusive SCI establishment in the TMP and NS groups. TMP (80 mg/kg) was injected thereafter daily from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group, which was replaced by equal volume of normal saline in the NS group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale was measured at different time points post-injury to appraise locomotor functional recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to assess the spatio-temporal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), while western blot was adopted to detect the effect of TMP on PGC-1α. Neural apoptotic changes and neuronal survival were evaluated using the TUNEL method and Nissl staining, respectively. TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis. These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival. The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on locomotor functional recovery. Prior to spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan (BBB) scores of rats in both the TMP (n = 5) and normal saline (NS) (n = 5) groups were 21 points, which is the same score the sham group remains at for all time points. After contusive SCI, the BBB scores of rats in the NS and TMP groups rapidly decreased and then gradually increased. From 7 to 28 days post-injury, the BBB scores in the TMP group were significantly higher than the NS group. The fastest locomotor functional restoration occurred from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group. **P < 0.01 comparisons between the TMP and NS groups
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Fig1: Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on locomotor functional recovery. Prior to spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan (BBB) scores of rats in both the TMP (n = 5) and normal saline (NS) (n = 5) groups were 21 points, which is the same score the sham group remains at for all time points. After contusive SCI, the BBB scores of rats in the NS and TMP groups rapidly decreased and then gradually increased. From 7 to 28 days post-injury, the BBB scores in the TMP group were significantly higher than the NS group. The fastest locomotor functional restoration occurred from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group. **P < 0.01 comparisons between the TMP and NS groups

Mentions: As shown in Fig. 1, locomotor functions of rats exhibited a 21-point non-injured score in the Sham group. After contusive SCI, BBB locomotor rating scale was promptly decreased. At 1 day post-injury, BBB scores exhibited around two points. As the healing process progressed, a gradual recovery of locomotor functions could be found in both the NS and TMP groups, but the scores were significantly higher in TMP group at 7–28 days post-injury. TMP treatment markedly increased the recovery rate of locomotor function in rats with contusive SCI. Importantly, the fastest functional recovery occurred between days 3 and 7 post-injury in the TMP group. This showed that the administration of TMP was effective within this period, and correlated with the locomotor functional recovery at later time periods.Fig. 1


The Neuroprotective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine Against Contusive Spinal Cord Injury by Activating PGC-1α in Rats.

Hu J, Lang Y, Cao Y, Zhang T, Lu H - Neurochem. Res. (2015)

Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on locomotor functional recovery. Prior to spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan (BBB) scores of rats in both the TMP (n = 5) and normal saline (NS) (n = 5) groups were 21 points, which is the same score the sham group remains at for all time points. After contusive SCI, the BBB scores of rats in the NS and TMP groups rapidly decreased and then gradually increased. From 7 to 28 days post-injury, the BBB scores in the TMP group were significantly higher than the NS group. The fastest locomotor functional restoration occurred from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group. **P < 0.01 comparisons between the TMP and NS groups
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493940&req=5

Fig1: Effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on locomotor functional recovery. Prior to spinal cord injury (SCI), the Basso–Beattie–Bresnahan (BBB) scores of rats in both the TMP (n = 5) and normal saline (NS) (n = 5) groups were 21 points, which is the same score the sham group remains at for all time points. After contusive SCI, the BBB scores of rats in the NS and TMP groups rapidly decreased and then gradually increased. From 7 to 28 days post-injury, the BBB scores in the TMP group were significantly higher than the NS group. The fastest locomotor functional restoration occurred from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group. **P < 0.01 comparisons between the TMP and NS groups
Mentions: As shown in Fig. 1, locomotor functions of rats exhibited a 21-point non-injured score in the Sham group. After contusive SCI, BBB locomotor rating scale was promptly decreased. At 1 day post-injury, BBB scores exhibited around two points. As the healing process progressed, a gradual recovery of locomotor functions could be found in both the NS and TMP groups, but the scores were significantly higher in TMP group at 7–28 days post-injury. TMP treatment markedly increased the recovery rate of locomotor function in rats with contusive SCI. Importantly, the fastest functional recovery occurred between days 3 and 7 post-injury in the TMP group. This showed that the administration of TMP was effective within this period, and correlated with the locomotor functional recovery at later time periods.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis.These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival.The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Spine Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

ABSTRACT
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been suggested to have neuroprotective effects against spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined these effects and the corresponding mechanism. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism of TMP against contusive SCI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, normal saline (NS) and TMP groups. Each group was divided into subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-injury. Laminectomy was performed in all groups, followed by contusive SCI establishment in the TMP and NS groups. TMP (80 mg/kg) was injected thereafter daily from 3 to 7 days post-injury in the TMP group, which was replaced by equal volume of normal saline in the NS group. The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) Locomotor Rating Scale was measured at different time points post-injury to appraise locomotor functional recovery. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to assess the spatio-temporal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), while western blot was adopted to detect the effect of TMP on PGC-1α. Neural apoptotic changes and neuronal survival were evaluated using the TUNEL method and Nissl staining, respectively. TMP treatment markedly increased PGC-1α expression, neuronal survival and BBB locomotor scores, while also reducing neural apoptosis. These results demonstrate that TMP is neuroprotective against contusive SCI, with the inhibition of neural apoptosis and increase of neuronal survival. The sustained expression of PGC-1α may partially contribute to the TMP-mediated neuroprotective effect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus