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The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger.

Beisswingert BM, Zhang K, Goetz T, Fang P, Fischbacher U - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger.Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results' cross-cultural generalizability.These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Empirical Educational Research, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany ; Department of Empirical Educational Research, Thurgau University of Teacher Education Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results' cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

One-factor pre–post design of Pilot Experimental Study and Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2. The Pilot Experimental Study tested the experimental paradigm’s adequacy for inducing subjective loss of control. By decreasing the accuracy with which the participants’ prediction was implemented into the computer game, the experimental group’s (EG’s) objectively given control was increasingly reduced during the four rounds of the manipulation section (represented by the darkening grey color). In a one-factor pre–post design the EG and control (CG) group’s subjective control ratings and external attributions following the baseline (t1) and manipulation (t2) sections of the experiment were compared. Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2 applied the same experimental paradigm to investigate the effects of loss of control on anger and risk-taking behavior in Germany and China, respectively.
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Figure 1: One-factor pre–post design of Pilot Experimental Study and Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2. The Pilot Experimental Study tested the experimental paradigm’s adequacy for inducing subjective loss of control. By decreasing the accuracy with which the participants’ prediction was implemented into the computer game, the experimental group’s (EG’s) objectively given control was increasingly reduced during the four rounds of the manipulation section (represented by the darkening grey color). In a one-factor pre–post design the EG and control (CG) group’s subjective control ratings and external attributions following the baseline (t1) and manipulation (t2) sections of the experiment were compared. Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2 applied the same experimental paradigm to investigate the effects of loss of control on anger and risk-taking behavior in Germany and China, respectively.

Mentions: The experimental study consisted of a one-factor pre–post design with questionnaires following the baseline and manipulation sections (cf., Figure 1). Following an instruction phase that included a comprehension test, both the EG and CG played eight rounds of an incentivized computer-based problem-solving task (maximum profit: 1 asar per round) in which the participants had to predict by mouse click where an object would be displayed on a circle by recognizing the systematic pattern underlying the previously displayed objects (for an example, see Figure 2). The participants were paid according to their correct prediction of the objects’ positions (prediction accuracy was transferred into a monetary reward with the maximum precision being compensated by 1 asar per round). The patterns were determined based on the angular distances of the subsequently displayed objects; this is similar to a continuing number series or patterns task which is frequently used to test non-verbal reasoning in common tests of intelligence (for example, see the K-ABC-II, Kaufman and Kaufman, 2004; CogAT6, Lohman and Hagen, 2001; CFT-20-R, Weiβ, 2006).


The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger.

Beisswingert BM, Zhang K, Goetz T, Fang P, Fischbacher U - Front Psychol (2015)

One-factor pre–post design of Pilot Experimental Study and Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2. The Pilot Experimental Study tested the experimental paradigm’s adequacy for inducing subjective loss of control. By decreasing the accuracy with which the participants’ prediction was implemented into the computer game, the experimental group’s (EG’s) objectively given control was increasingly reduced during the four rounds of the manipulation section (represented by the darkening grey color). In a one-factor pre–post design the EG and control (CG) group’s subjective control ratings and external attributions following the baseline (t1) and manipulation (t2) sections of the experiment were compared. Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2 applied the same experimental paradigm to investigate the effects of loss of control on anger and risk-taking behavior in Germany and China, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493906&req=5

Figure 1: One-factor pre–post design of Pilot Experimental Study and Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2. The Pilot Experimental Study tested the experimental paradigm’s adequacy for inducing subjective loss of control. By decreasing the accuracy with which the participants’ prediction was implemented into the computer game, the experimental group’s (EG’s) objectively given control was increasingly reduced during the four rounds of the manipulation section (represented by the darkening grey color). In a one-factor pre–post design the EG and control (CG) group’s subjective control ratings and external attributions following the baseline (t1) and manipulation (t2) sections of the experiment were compared. Main Experimental Studies 1 and 2 applied the same experimental paradigm to investigate the effects of loss of control on anger and risk-taking behavior in Germany and China, respectively.
Mentions: The experimental study consisted of a one-factor pre–post design with questionnaires following the baseline and manipulation sections (cf., Figure 1). Following an instruction phase that included a comprehension test, both the EG and CG played eight rounds of an incentivized computer-based problem-solving task (maximum profit: 1 asar per round) in which the participants had to predict by mouse click where an object would be displayed on a circle by recognizing the systematic pattern underlying the previously displayed objects (for an example, see Figure 2). The participants were paid according to their correct prediction of the objects’ positions (prediction accuracy was transferred into a monetary reward with the maximum precision being compensated by 1 asar per round). The patterns were determined based on the angular distances of the subsequently displayed objects; this is similar to a continuing number series or patterns task which is frequently used to test non-verbal reasoning in common tests of intelligence (for example, see the K-ABC-II, Kaufman and Kaufman, 2004; CogAT6, Lohman and Hagen, 2001; CFT-20-R, Weiβ, 2006).

Bottom Line: Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger.Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results' cross-cultural generalizability.These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Empirical Educational Research, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany ; Department of Empirical Educational Research, Thurgau University of Teacher Education Kreuzlingen, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results' cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus