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High resolution multi-facies realizations of sedimentary reservoir and aquifer analogs.

Bayer P, Comunian A, Höyng D, Mariethoz G - Sci Data (2015)

Bottom Line: While this approach is appealing, it is difficult to put in place because of the lack of access to well-documented analog data.Multiple 2-D outcrop faces are described in terms of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties and interpolated in 3-D using stochastic techniques.These unique data sets can be used by the wider community to implement analog approaches for characterizing reservoir and aquifer formations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich , Zurich 8092, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Geological structures are by nature inaccessible to direct observation. This can cause difficulties in applications where a spatially explicit representation of such structures is required, in particular when modelling fluid migration in geological formations. An increasing trend in recent years has been to use analogs to palliate this lack of knowledge, i.e., exploiting the spatial information from sites where the geology is accessible (outcrops, quarry sites) and transferring the observed properties to a study site deemed geologically similar. While this approach is appealing, it is difficult to put in place because of the lack of access to well-documented analog data. In this paper we present comprehensive analog data sets which characterize sedimentary structures from important groundwater hosting formations in Germany and Brazil. Multiple 2-D outcrop faces are described in terms of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties and interpolated in 3-D using stochastic techniques. These unique data sets can be used by the wider community to implement analog approaches for characterizing reservoir and aquifer formations.

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Visualization of two exemplary realizations for Descalvado and Herten aquifer analogs with colour coding of the facies types (see Tables 2 and 3).
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f3: Visualization of two exemplary realizations for Descalvado and Herten aquifer analogs with colour coding of the facies types (see Tables 2 and 3).

Mentions: Ensembles of multiple 3-D realizations of the Herten and the Descalvado analogs (Fig. 3) are obtained by multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation49,50. MPS is a collection of geostatistical simulation tools that are specifically aimed at representing complex connected structures and curvilinear patterns. To apply MPS, a training image is normally required, i.e., a conceptual model of heterogeneity that has the same dimensionality as the domain to be modelled. For example, to simulate a 3-D domain with MPS, one normally needs a full 3-D training image. Comunian, et al.51 proposed a technique, named sequential 2-D simulation with conditioning data (s2Dcd), which relaxes the aforementioned requirement and allows the MPS simulation of 3-D domains using 2-D training images only. The lack of information is compensated by additional hypothesis about the symmetry of the 3-D simulation domain. In practice, the 3-D simulation domain is filled by a sequence of 2-D MPS simulations, performed alternatively along the directions where a 2-D training image is available. At each 2-D simulation step, all voxels simulated in the previous steps that cross the current 2-D simulation sub-domain are considered as conditioning data. By this, all 2-D sections in all directions are reconstructed in such a way that they are coherent with each other and also consistent with the structures in the training image. Here the 2-D training images are the facies distributions mapped for the two analogs along perpendicular vertical outcrops, and the 2-D MPS simulations are performed with the MPS simulation engine impala52.


High resolution multi-facies realizations of sedimentary reservoir and aquifer analogs.

Bayer P, Comunian A, Höyng D, Mariethoz G - Sci Data (2015)

Visualization of two exemplary realizations for Descalvado and Herten aquifer analogs with colour coding of the facies types (see Tables 2 and 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493827&req=5

f3: Visualization of two exemplary realizations for Descalvado and Herten aquifer analogs with colour coding of the facies types (see Tables 2 and 3).
Mentions: Ensembles of multiple 3-D realizations of the Herten and the Descalvado analogs (Fig. 3) are obtained by multiple-point statistics (MPS) simulation49,50. MPS is a collection of geostatistical simulation tools that are specifically aimed at representing complex connected structures and curvilinear patterns. To apply MPS, a training image is normally required, i.e., a conceptual model of heterogeneity that has the same dimensionality as the domain to be modelled. For example, to simulate a 3-D domain with MPS, one normally needs a full 3-D training image. Comunian, et al.51 proposed a technique, named sequential 2-D simulation with conditioning data (s2Dcd), which relaxes the aforementioned requirement and allows the MPS simulation of 3-D domains using 2-D training images only. The lack of information is compensated by additional hypothesis about the symmetry of the 3-D simulation domain. In practice, the 3-D simulation domain is filled by a sequence of 2-D MPS simulations, performed alternatively along the directions where a 2-D training image is available. At each 2-D simulation step, all voxels simulated in the previous steps that cross the current 2-D simulation sub-domain are considered as conditioning data. By this, all 2-D sections in all directions are reconstructed in such a way that they are coherent with each other and also consistent with the structures in the training image. Here the 2-D training images are the facies distributions mapped for the two analogs along perpendicular vertical outcrops, and the 2-D MPS simulations are performed with the MPS simulation engine impala52.

Bottom Line: While this approach is appealing, it is difficult to put in place because of the lack of access to well-documented analog data.Multiple 2-D outcrop faces are described in terms of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties and interpolated in 3-D using stochastic techniques.These unique data sets can be used by the wider community to implement analog approaches for characterizing reservoir and aquifer formations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zurich , Zurich 8092, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Geological structures are by nature inaccessible to direct observation. This can cause difficulties in applications where a spatially explicit representation of such structures is required, in particular when modelling fluid migration in geological formations. An increasing trend in recent years has been to use analogs to palliate this lack of knowledge, i.e., exploiting the spatial information from sites where the geology is accessible (outcrops, quarry sites) and transferring the observed properties to a study site deemed geologically similar. While this approach is appealing, it is difficult to put in place because of the lack of access to well-documented analog data. In this paper we present comprehensive analog data sets which characterize sedimentary structures from important groundwater hosting formations in Germany and Brazil. Multiple 2-D outcrop faces are described in terms of hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties and interpolated in 3-D using stochastic techniques. These unique data sets can be used by the wider community to implement analog approaches for characterizing reservoir and aquifer formations.

Show MeSH