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Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

Cass CL, Peraldi A, Dowd PF, Mottiar Y, Santoro N, Karlen SD, Bukhman YV, Foster CE, Thrower N, Bruno LC, Moskvin OV, Johnson ET, Willhoit ME, Phutane M, Ralph J, Mansfield SD, Nicholson P, Sedbrook JC - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Bottom Line: The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion.RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions.The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790 USA US Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of BdPAL silencing on Fusarium disease resistance. (A) Comparison of the foliar necrotic lesions that developed on wounded leaves of WT Bd21-3 and BdPAL RNAi1-1 following F. culmorum infection. The image shows necrotic lesions 7 days post-infection (dpi). n=32. (B) Comparison of the root necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots following F. culmorum infection. 22<n<24. Image shows seedlings 9 dpi. Asterisks in (A) and (B) represent Student’s t-test P-value <0.001, comparing BdPAL RNAi1-1 with the WT for a given time point. (C, D) Comparison of the effect of ACC (C) and AVG (D) treatments on the necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots, 7 d following F. culmorum infection. 20<n<24. For (C, D), asterisks represent Student’s t-test P-values <0.001, which relate to the comparison of each treatment with its corresponding untreated control. For all graphs, error bars represent the standard error (SE).
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Figure 5: Effect of BdPAL silencing on Fusarium disease resistance. (A) Comparison of the foliar necrotic lesions that developed on wounded leaves of WT Bd21-3 and BdPAL RNAi1-1 following F. culmorum infection. The image shows necrotic lesions 7 days post-infection (dpi). n=32. (B) Comparison of the root necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots following F. culmorum infection. 22<n<24. Image shows seedlings 9 dpi. Asterisks in (A) and (B) represent Student’s t-test P-value <0.001, comparing BdPAL RNAi1-1 with the WT for a given time point. (C, D) Comparison of the effect of ACC (C) and AVG (D) treatments on the necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots, 7 d following F. culmorum infection. 20<n<24. For (C, D), asterisks represent Student’s t-test P-values <0.001, which relate to the comparison of each treatment with its corresponding untreated control. For all graphs, error bars represent the standard error (SE).

Mentions: Brachypodium distachyon was recently shown to display a compatible interaction with F. culmorum, one of the predominant causal agents of Fusarium diseases in cereals (Peraldi et al., 2011). To assess the effects that BdPAL silencing might have on fungal disease resistance, leaf and root tissues of BdPAL RNAi1-1 plants were infected with F. culmorum conidial inoculum. When F. culmorum conidia were deposited on punctured leaf sites, no significant difference in necrotic lesion formation was observed up to 4 d following infection. However, thereafter, lesions developed more rapidly and became significantly larger on BdPAL RNAi1-1 leaves compared with WT Bd21-3 (P<0.001; Fig. 5A). Moreover, whereas chlorosis developed around necrotic lesions in both lines, it was strikingly more extensive on BdPAL RNAi1-1 leaves (Fig. 5A).


Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

Cass CL, Peraldi A, Dowd PF, Mottiar Y, Santoro N, Karlen SD, Bukhman YV, Foster CE, Thrower N, Bruno LC, Moskvin OV, Johnson ET, Willhoit ME, Phutane M, Ralph J, Mansfield SD, Nicholson P, Sedbrook JC - J. Exp. Bot. (2015)

Effect of BdPAL silencing on Fusarium disease resistance. (A) Comparison of the foliar necrotic lesions that developed on wounded leaves of WT Bd21-3 and BdPAL RNAi1-1 following F. culmorum infection. The image shows necrotic lesions 7 days post-infection (dpi). n=32. (B) Comparison of the root necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots following F. culmorum infection. 22<n<24. Image shows seedlings 9 dpi. Asterisks in (A) and (B) represent Student’s t-test P-value <0.001, comparing BdPAL RNAi1-1 with the WT for a given time point. (C, D) Comparison of the effect of ACC (C) and AVG (D) treatments on the necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots, 7 d following F. culmorum infection. 20<n<24. For (C, D), asterisks represent Student’s t-test P-values <0.001, which relate to the comparison of each treatment with its corresponding untreated control. For all graphs, error bars represent the standard error (SE).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 5: Effect of BdPAL silencing on Fusarium disease resistance. (A) Comparison of the foliar necrotic lesions that developed on wounded leaves of WT Bd21-3 and BdPAL RNAi1-1 following F. culmorum infection. The image shows necrotic lesions 7 days post-infection (dpi). n=32. (B) Comparison of the root necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots following F. culmorum infection. 22<n<24. Image shows seedlings 9 dpi. Asterisks in (A) and (B) represent Student’s t-test P-value <0.001, comparing BdPAL RNAi1-1 with the WT for a given time point. (C, D) Comparison of the effect of ACC (C) and AVG (D) treatments on the necrotic lesion sizes developed on WT and BdPAL RNAi1-1 roots, 7 d following F. culmorum infection. 20<n<24. For (C, D), asterisks represent Student’s t-test P-values <0.001, which relate to the comparison of each treatment with its corresponding untreated control. For all graphs, error bars represent the standard error (SE).
Mentions: Brachypodium distachyon was recently shown to display a compatible interaction with F. culmorum, one of the predominant causal agents of Fusarium diseases in cereals (Peraldi et al., 2011). To assess the effects that BdPAL silencing might have on fungal disease resistance, leaf and root tissues of BdPAL RNAi1-1 plants were infected with F. culmorum conidial inoculum. When F. culmorum conidia were deposited on punctured leaf sites, no significant difference in necrotic lesion formation was observed up to 4 d following infection. However, thereafter, lesions developed more rapidly and became significantly larger on BdPAL RNAi1-1 leaves compared with WT Bd21-3 (P<0.001; Fig. 5A). Moreover, whereas chlorosis developed around necrotic lesions in both lines, it was strikingly more extensive on BdPAL RNAi1-1 leaves (Fig. 5A).

Bottom Line: The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion.RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions.The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790 USA US Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus