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The effect of meditation on regulation of internal body states.

Khalsa SS, Rudrauf D, Davidson RJ, Tranel D - Front Psychol (2015)

Bottom Line: In that study, while meditating, a self-taught meditator exhibited unexpected decreases in heart rate while receiving moderate intravenous doses of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol.This effect was no longer observed when the individual received isoproterenol infusions while not meditating.These results suggest that meditation is not associated with increased regulation of elevated cardiac adrenergic tone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Iowa City, IA, USA ; Laureate Institute for Brain Research Tulsa, OK, USA ; Faculty of Community Medicine, University of Tulsa Tulsa, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
Meditation is commonly thought to induce physiologically quiescent states, as evidenced by decreased autonomic parameters during the meditation practice including reduced heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and increased alpha activity in the electroencephalogram. Preliminary empirical support for this idea was provided in a case report by Dimsdale and Mills (2002), where it was found that meditation seemed to regulate increased levels of cardiovascular arousal induced by bolus isoproterenol infusions. In that study, while meditating, a self-taught meditator exhibited unexpected decreases in heart rate while receiving moderate intravenous doses of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. This effect was no longer observed when the individual received isoproterenol infusions while not meditating. The current study was designed to explore this phenomenon empirically in a group of formally trained meditators. A total of 15 meditators and 15 non-meditators individually matched on age, sex, and body mass index were recruited. Participants received four series of infusions in a pseudorandomized order: isoproterenol while meditating (or during a relaxation condition for the non-meditators), isoproterenol while resting, saline while meditating (or during a relaxation condition for the non-meditators), and saline while resting. Heart rate was continuously measured throughout all infusions, and several measures of heart rate were derived from the instantaneous cardiac waveform. There was no evidence at the group or individual level suggesting that meditation reduced the cardiovascular response to isoproterenol, across all measures. These results suggest that meditation is not associated with increased regulation of elevated cardiac adrenergic tone.

No MeSH data available.


Mean heart rates for both groups during mediation/relaxation and rest. (A) Mean heart rate change (epoch 2 minus epoch 1). (B) Mean heart rate during epoch 2. (C) Mean heart rates measured via automated blood pressure monitor. For purposes of clarity, mean values are displayed without error bars, and the relaxation condition for the non-meditators is labeled as meditation.
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Figure 2: Mean heart rates for both groups during mediation/relaxation and rest. (A) Mean heart rate change (epoch 2 minus epoch 1). (B) Mean heart rate during epoch 2. (C) Mean heart rates measured via automated blood pressure monitor. For purposes of clarity, mean values are displayed without error bars, and the relaxation condition for the non-meditators is labeled as meditation.

Mentions: As expected, we observed a significant effect of condition F(1, 3) = 140.22, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.83, ε = 0.780, observed power = 1.00, and dose F(1, 4) = 68.5, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.71, ε = 0.554, observed power = 1.00, on the mean heart rate response to isoproterenol. There was a significant interaction between condition and dose F(1, 12) = 68.54, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.59, ε = 0.737, observed power = 1.00, such that increases in heart rate occurred at increasing doses of isoproterenol (but not saline) administration. However, despite these changes, there were no group differences in the heart rate response to isoproterenol. There was no effect of group F(1, 28) = 2.97, p = 0.10, η2p = 0.10, observed power = 0.384, and there were no interactions between condition and group F(1, 3) = 0.21, p = 0.84, η2p = 0.01, observed power = 0.088, between dose and group F(1, 4) = 0.21, p = 0.84, η2p = 0.01, observed power = 0.093, or between condition and group and dose F(1, 12) = 0.82, p = 0.60, η2p = 0.03, observed power = 0.482, suggesting that the heart rate increases induced by isoproterenol were not statistically different between the groups (Figure 2A). Mean average heart rate changes and associated 95% confidence intervals are displayed in Table 2.


The effect of meditation on regulation of internal body states.

Khalsa SS, Rudrauf D, Davidson RJ, Tranel D - Front Psychol (2015)

Mean heart rates for both groups during mediation/relaxation and rest. (A) Mean heart rate change (epoch 2 minus epoch 1). (B) Mean heart rate during epoch 2. (C) Mean heart rates measured via automated blood pressure monitor. For purposes of clarity, mean values are displayed without error bars, and the relaxation condition for the non-meditators is labeled as meditation.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493770&req=5

Figure 2: Mean heart rates for both groups during mediation/relaxation and rest. (A) Mean heart rate change (epoch 2 minus epoch 1). (B) Mean heart rate during epoch 2. (C) Mean heart rates measured via automated blood pressure monitor. For purposes of clarity, mean values are displayed without error bars, and the relaxation condition for the non-meditators is labeled as meditation.
Mentions: As expected, we observed a significant effect of condition F(1, 3) = 140.22, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.83, ε = 0.780, observed power = 1.00, and dose F(1, 4) = 68.5, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.71, ε = 0.554, observed power = 1.00, on the mean heart rate response to isoproterenol. There was a significant interaction between condition and dose F(1, 12) = 68.54, p < 0.0001, η2p = 0.59, ε = 0.737, observed power = 1.00, such that increases in heart rate occurred at increasing doses of isoproterenol (but not saline) administration. However, despite these changes, there were no group differences in the heart rate response to isoproterenol. There was no effect of group F(1, 28) = 2.97, p = 0.10, η2p = 0.10, observed power = 0.384, and there were no interactions between condition and group F(1, 3) = 0.21, p = 0.84, η2p = 0.01, observed power = 0.088, between dose and group F(1, 4) = 0.21, p = 0.84, η2p = 0.01, observed power = 0.093, or between condition and group and dose F(1, 12) = 0.82, p = 0.60, η2p = 0.03, observed power = 0.482, suggesting that the heart rate increases induced by isoproterenol were not statistically different between the groups (Figure 2A). Mean average heart rate changes and associated 95% confidence intervals are displayed in Table 2.

Bottom Line: In that study, while meditating, a self-taught meditator exhibited unexpected decreases in heart rate while receiving moderate intravenous doses of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol.This effect was no longer observed when the individual received isoproterenol infusions while not meditating.These results suggest that meditation is not associated with increased regulation of elevated cardiac adrenergic tone.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neurology, University of Iowa Iowa City, IA, USA ; Laureate Institute for Brain Research Tulsa, OK, USA ; Faculty of Community Medicine, University of Tulsa Tulsa, OK, USA.

ABSTRACT
Meditation is commonly thought to induce physiologically quiescent states, as evidenced by decreased autonomic parameters during the meditation practice including reduced heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and increased alpha activity in the electroencephalogram. Preliminary empirical support for this idea was provided in a case report by Dimsdale and Mills (2002), where it was found that meditation seemed to regulate increased levels of cardiovascular arousal induced by bolus isoproterenol infusions. In that study, while meditating, a self-taught meditator exhibited unexpected decreases in heart rate while receiving moderate intravenous doses of the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. This effect was no longer observed when the individual received isoproterenol infusions while not meditating. The current study was designed to explore this phenomenon empirically in a group of formally trained meditators. A total of 15 meditators and 15 non-meditators individually matched on age, sex, and body mass index were recruited. Participants received four series of infusions in a pseudorandomized order: isoproterenol while meditating (or during a relaxation condition for the non-meditators), isoproterenol while resting, saline while meditating (or during a relaxation condition for the non-meditators), and saline while resting. Heart rate was continuously measured throughout all infusions, and several measures of heart rate were derived from the instantaneous cardiac waveform. There was no evidence at the group or individual level suggesting that meditation reduced the cardiovascular response to isoproterenol, across all measures. These results suggest that meditation is not associated with increased regulation of elevated cardiac adrenergic tone.

No MeSH data available.