Limits...
The Effects of Nitroglycerine on Pain Control During the Propofol Injection; a Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Derakhshan P, Karbasy SH, Bahador R - Anesth Pain Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The pain severity in nitroglycerine group was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (P < 0.0001).Nitroglycerine may be a safe and effective adjuvant therapeutic for pain reduction in patients under propofol injection.Hence, its use for reduction of propofol injection-induced pain is recommended.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Imam Reza Hospital, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of Propofol often results in pain upon injection, which is sometimes very distressing for patients. Many patients report some degree of pain or discomfort on injection with propofol. Injection-induced pain during induction of anesthesia can result in patient's discomfort.

Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of nitroglycerine on pain severity in patients undergoing propofol injection.

Patients and methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 100 patients with ASA class I and II undergoing anesthesia with propofol injection were selected for the study from 2012 to 2013 in Imam Reza training hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to case and control groups and received either 20 μg of nitroglycerine or normal saline as placebo. The severity of injection pain was assessed using a four-point scale. An anesthesiologist observed hemodynamic and local adverse effects.

Results: The pain severity in nitroglycerine group was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the local adverse reactions were observed only in three patients in the placebo group while no patient in the drug group experienced adverse effects (P = 0.242). The systolic blood pressure showed no significant difference between two groups before and after the induction of anesthesia but the diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate was significantly different between study groups.

Conclusions: Nitroglycerine may be a safe and effective adjuvant therapeutic for pain reduction in patients under propofol injection. Hence, its use for reduction of propofol injection-induced pain is recommended.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Study Participant’s Selection Flowchart
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493726&req=5

fig19716: The Study Participant’s Selection Flowchart

Mentions: where n stands for sample size required in each group, P1 for expected proportion of subject to show no pain in case group, P2 for expected proportion of subject to show no pain in control group, (P1 - P2) for clinically significant difference, Zα /2 for 5% level of significance (1.96), and Zβ for 95% power (21). Based on the study of Nathanson, et al. (4), P1 and P2 were expected to be 0.7 and 0.03, respectively. Thus, n1 and n2 were calculated as 35 that gave us a total sample size of 70. To be more precise, the final sample size was decided to be 100 (50 in each group) (Figure 1).


The Effects of Nitroglycerine on Pain Control During the Propofol Injection; a Controlled, Double-Blinded, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Derakhshan P, Karbasy SH, Bahador R - Anesth Pain Med (2015)

The Study Participant’s Selection Flowchart
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493726&req=5

fig19716: The Study Participant’s Selection Flowchart
Mentions: where n stands for sample size required in each group, P1 for expected proportion of subject to show no pain in case group, P2 for expected proportion of subject to show no pain in control group, (P1 - P2) for clinically significant difference, Zα /2 for 5% level of significance (1.96), and Zβ for 95% power (21). Based on the study of Nathanson, et al. (4), P1 and P2 were expected to be 0.7 and 0.03, respectively. Thus, n1 and n2 were calculated as 35 that gave us a total sample size of 70. To be more precise, the final sample size was decided to be 100 (50 in each group) (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: The pain severity in nitroglycerine group was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (P < 0.0001).Nitroglycerine may be a safe and effective adjuvant therapeutic for pain reduction in patients under propofol injection.Hence, its use for reduction of propofol injection-induced pain is recommended.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Anesthesiology, Imam Reza Hospital, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of Propofol often results in pain upon injection, which is sometimes very distressing for patients. Many patients report some degree of pain or discomfort on injection with propofol. Injection-induced pain during induction of anesthesia can result in patient's discomfort.

Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of nitroglycerine on pain severity in patients undergoing propofol injection.

Patients and methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 100 patients with ASA class I and II undergoing anesthesia with propofol injection were selected for the study from 2012 to 2013 in Imam Reza training hospital. Patients were randomly assigned to case and control groups and received either 20 μg of nitroglycerine or normal saline as placebo. The severity of injection pain was assessed using a four-point scale. An anesthesiologist observed hemodynamic and local adverse effects.

Results: The pain severity in nitroglycerine group was significantly lower compared with the placebo group (P < 0.0001). Moreover, the local adverse reactions were observed only in three patients in the placebo group while no patient in the drug group experienced adverse effects (P = 0.242). The systolic blood pressure showed no significant difference between two groups before and after the induction of anesthesia but the diastolic blood pressure and the heart rate was significantly different between study groups.

Conclusions: Nitroglycerine may be a safe and effective adjuvant therapeutic for pain reduction in patients under propofol injection. Hence, its use for reduction of propofol injection-induced pain is recommended.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus