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In situ microscopic observation of chitin and fungal cells with chitinous cell walls in hydrothermal conditions.

Deguchi S, Tsujii K, Horikoshi K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Recent findings of intact chitin in fossil records suggest surprisingly high recalcitrance of this biopolymer during hydrothermal treatments.We also know in the experience of everyday life that mushroom, cells of which have chitinous cell walls, do not fall apart however long they are simmered.The results show very hot and compressed water is needed to make mushrooms mushy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recent findings of intact chitin in fossil records suggest surprisingly high recalcitrance of this biopolymer during hydrothermal treatments. We also know in the experience of everyday life that mushroom, cells of which have chitinous cell walls, do not fall apart however long they are simmered. We used in situ optical microscopy to examine chitin and fungal cells with chitinous cell walls during hydrothermal treatments, and obtained direct evidence that they remained undegraded at temperatures well over 200 °C. The results show very hot and compressed water is needed to make mushrooms mushy.

No MeSH data available.


Change of the size of a C. liquefaciens cell in water between 130 °C and 310 °C as a function of temperature.Pressure was kept constant at 25 MPa. Insets show microscopic images corresponding to the temperature of the data points indicated by arrows. Each images are 26 μm × 26 μm.
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f3: Change of the size of a C. liquefaciens cell in water between 130 °C and 310 °C as a function of temperature.Pressure was kept constant at 25 MPa. Insets show microscopic images corresponding to the temperature of the data points indicated by arrows. Each images are 26 μm × 26 μm.

Mentions: Further heating revealed the spherical structure of the C. liquefaciens cells was retained up to 250 °C. The cells, which were adhered to the optical window at low temperatures, came off from the window at around 200 °C, and were swept away by the convective flow (Movie S2). The cells re-adhered onto the diamond surface at around 230 °C and stopped being flown. At temperatures between 250 °C and 270 °C, all the spherical cells shrank abruptly (Figure S3, see also Movie S2). Figure 3 shows the change of the diameter of a C. liquefaciens cell between 130 and 310 °C together with corresponding microscopic images. It is clearly seen that the diameter remained essentially unchanged between 130 and 250 °C, but decreased abruptly by more than 50% between 250 and 270 °C. We were not able to determine the final fate of the residue at higher temperatures because of the optical resolution of the microscopic system.


In situ microscopic observation of chitin and fungal cells with chitinous cell walls in hydrothermal conditions.

Deguchi S, Tsujii K, Horikoshi K - Sci Rep (2015)

Change of the size of a C. liquefaciens cell in water between 130 °C and 310 °C as a function of temperature.Pressure was kept constant at 25 MPa. Insets show microscopic images corresponding to the temperature of the data points indicated by arrows. Each images are 26 μm × 26 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493705&req=5

f3: Change of the size of a C. liquefaciens cell in water between 130 °C and 310 °C as a function of temperature.Pressure was kept constant at 25 MPa. Insets show microscopic images corresponding to the temperature of the data points indicated by arrows. Each images are 26 μm × 26 μm.
Mentions: Further heating revealed the spherical structure of the C. liquefaciens cells was retained up to 250 °C. The cells, which were adhered to the optical window at low temperatures, came off from the window at around 200 °C, and were swept away by the convective flow (Movie S2). The cells re-adhered onto the diamond surface at around 230 °C and stopped being flown. At temperatures between 250 °C and 270 °C, all the spherical cells shrank abruptly (Figure S3, see also Movie S2). Figure 3 shows the change of the diameter of a C. liquefaciens cell between 130 and 310 °C together with corresponding microscopic images. It is clearly seen that the diameter remained essentially unchanged between 130 and 250 °C, but decreased abruptly by more than 50% between 250 and 270 °C. We were not able to determine the final fate of the residue at higher temperatures because of the optical resolution of the microscopic system.

Bottom Line: Recent findings of intact chitin in fossil records suggest surprisingly high recalcitrance of this biopolymer during hydrothermal treatments.We also know in the experience of everyday life that mushroom, cells of which have chitinous cell walls, do not fall apart however long they are simmered.The results show very hot and compressed water is needed to make mushrooms mushy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recent findings of intact chitin in fossil records suggest surprisingly high recalcitrance of this biopolymer during hydrothermal treatments. We also know in the experience of everyday life that mushroom, cells of which have chitinous cell walls, do not fall apart however long they are simmered. We used in situ optical microscopy to examine chitin and fungal cells with chitinous cell walls during hydrothermal treatments, and obtained direct evidence that they remained undegraded at temperatures well over 200 °C. The results show very hot and compressed water is needed to make mushrooms mushy.

No MeSH data available.