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Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transforming a flat lens into a magnifying lens.a, Schematic of a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens: normally incident pump beams are diverged by the lens. “f” is the virtual focus of the plano-concave lens in linear optics. b,c, Magnified images of the gratings formed by the nonlinear plano-concave lens with focal length f = −13.5 cm. d, Schematic of a nonlinear magnifying flat lens: the pump beam emits from the point “F”, diverged along the same paths as the former case behind the flat lens. 4 WMs can be generated in a similar manner in both cases. e,f, Magnified images of the gratings formed by a flat lens with a diverged pump beam 13.5 cm away from the lens. The scale bar is 10 μm.
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f5: Transforming a flat lens into a magnifying lens.a, Schematic of a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens: normally incident pump beams are diverged by the lens. “f” is the virtual focus of the plano-concave lens in linear optics. b,c, Magnified images of the gratings formed by the nonlinear plano-concave lens with focal length f = −13.5 cm. d, Schematic of a nonlinear magnifying flat lens: the pump beam emits from the point “F”, diverged along the same paths as the former case behind the flat lens. 4 WMs can be generated in a similar manner in both cases. e,f, Magnified images of the gratings formed by a flat lens with a diverged pump beam 13.5 cm away from the lens. The scale bar is 10 μm.

Mentions: Inspired by the development of transformation optics67, we can transform a non-magnifying nonlinear flat lens25 into a magnifying one by connecting the spatially varying index in a plano-concave nonlinear magnifying lens to the 4 WM phase match conditions (effective negative refractive index ) in a non-magnifying nonlinear flat lens. Figure 5 illustrates this idea: with a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens mentioned above, the pump beam usually is normally incident to the front facet of the lens, diverged by the plano-concave lens due to linear refraction (Fig. 5a). This behavior can be mimicked by a point-like divergent pump beam passing through a flat slide (Fig. 5d). Meanwhile, 4 WMs in Fig. 5d no longer fulfill the same phase matching uniformly along the transverse plane as in Fig. 1b due to the spatially varying incidence of the divergent pump beam, effectively experiencing spatially varying negative refractive index2025 similar to the linear case of light propagation inside a gradient index (GRIN) lens transformed from a plano-convex lens. While traditional transformation optics relies on artificial meta-materials to produce spatial variations to manipulate the light propagation in a linear fashion, our method here creates the first example ever using effective negative refractive index by nonlinear 4 WMs.


Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Transforming a flat lens into a magnifying lens.a, Schematic of a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens: normally incident pump beams are diverged by the lens. “f” is the virtual focus of the plano-concave lens in linear optics. b,c, Magnified images of the gratings formed by the nonlinear plano-concave lens with focal length f = −13.5 cm. d, Schematic of a nonlinear magnifying flat lens: the pump beam emits from the point “F”, diverged along the same paths as the former case behind the flat lens. 4 WMs can be generated in a similar manner in both cases. e,f, Magnified images of the gratings formed by a flat lens with a diverged pump beam 13.5 cm away from the lens. The scale bar is 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493703&req=5

f5: Transforming a flat lens into a magnifying lens.a, Schematic of a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens: normally incident pump beams are diverged by the lens. “f” is the virtual focus of the plano-concave lens in linear optics. b,c, Magnified images of the gratings formed by the nonlinear plano-concave lens with focal length f = −13.5 cm. d, Schematic of a nonlinear magnifying flat lens: the pump beam emits from the point “F”, diverged along the same paths as the former case behind the flat lens. 4 WMs can be generated in a similar manner in both cases. e,f, Magnified images of the gratings formed by a flat lens with a diverged pump beam 13.5 cm away from the lens. The scale bar is 10 μm.
Mentions: Inspired by the development of transformation optics67, we can transform a non-magnifying nonlinear flat lens25 into a magnifying one by connecting the spatially varying index in a plano-concave nonlinear magnifying lens to the 4 WM phase match conditions (effective negative refractive index ) in a non-magnifying nonlinear flat lens. Figure 5 illustrates this idea: with a nonlinear plano-concave magnifying lens mentioned above, the pump beam usually is normally incident to the front facet of the lens, diverged by the plano-concave lens due to linear refraction (Fig. 5a). This behavior can be mimicked by a point-like divergent pump beam passing through a flat slide (Fig. 5d). Meanwhile, 4 WMs in Fig. 5d no longer fulfill the same phase matching uniformly along the transverse plane as in Fig. 1b due to the spatially varying incidence of the divergent pump beam, effectively experiencing spatially varying negative refractive index2025 similar to the linear case of light propagation inside a gradient index (GRIN) lens transformed from a plano-convex lens. While traditional transformation optics relies on artificial meta-materials to produce spatial variations to manipulate the light propagation in a linear fashion, our method here creates the first example ever using effective negative refractive index by nonlinear 4 WMs.

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus