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Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a collinear configuration.a, The collinear experimental setup: The pump beam at λ1 = 800 nm is incident on the plano-concave lens normally, reflected by a dichroic mirror (900 nm long pass). The probe beam at λ2 = 1300 nm modulated by a “grating” is transformed and forms an “object” in the front of the lens by a 4f system. The focal lengths of “L1” and “L2” are 4 cm and 6 cm, respectively. The zero order diffraction beam of the grating is blocked because this beam can’t fulfill phase matching. The focal length of the plano-concave lens used in this setup is −9.8 mm and its edge thickness is 1.98 mm. The “image” formed by the 4 WM beam at λ3 = 578 nm is recorded by a home build microscopy, made of a 40× objective lens, a 600 nm short pass filter, a lens with focal length 15 cm and a high sensitive CCD camera. b-e, Images of the gratings in a collinear experimental setup. b, Object image with horizontal lines. c, Object image with vertical lines. d, Magnified image of the object with horizontal lines. e, magnified image of the object with vertical lines. The scale bar is 10 μm.
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f4: Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a collinear configuration.a, The collinear experimental setup: The pump beam at λ1 = 800 nm is incident on the plano-concave lens normally, reflected by a dichroic mirror (900 nm long pass). The probe beam at λ2 = 1300 nm modulated by a “grating” is transformed and forms an “object” in the front of the lens by a 4f system. The focal lengths of “L1” and “L2” are 4 cm and 6 cm, respectively. The zero order diffraction beam of the grating is blocked because this beam can’t fulfill phase matching. The focal length of the plano-concave lens used in this setup is −9.8 mm and its edge thickness is 1.98 mm. The “image” formed by the 4 WM beam at λ3 = 578 nm is recorded by a home build microscopy, made of a 40× objective lens, a 600 nm short pass filter, a lens with focal length 15 cm and a high sensitive CCD camera. b-e, Images of the gratings in a collinear experimental setup. b, Object image with horizontal lines. c, Object image with vertical lines. d, Magnified image of the object with horizontal lines. e, magnified image of the object with vertical lines. The scale bar is 10 μm.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the 2D magnified images formed by the nonlinear magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration. It is noticeable that the horizontal features are much clearer than the vertical ones. This is because that the incident pump and probe beams both lay on the same horizontal plane, where only one small portion of phase matching ring near the horizontal plane in Fig. 1b is exploited, giving a better phase matching to 4 WMs on that plane, while not to 4 WMs on the vertical one (Supplementary Section 3 and 4). Hence, 4 WMs can be better generated and focused in the horizontal plane, giving a finer resolution. To overcome this limitation, we implement a collinear configuration shown in Fig. 4 to access the full phase matching ring in 3D vector space in Fig. 1b (Supplementary Section 5), where a normal incident pump beam combined with probe beams scattered off the image object can fulfill the phase matching condition around the full ring geometry in 3D vector space (Fig. 1b) to generate 4 WMs. Unlike the non-collinear configuration, both vertical and horizontal lines are clear now in Fig. 4d,e with a magnification around ~1.87 given by Equ. (2).


Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a collinear configuration.a, The collinear experimental setup: The pump beam at λ1 = 800 nm is incident on the plano-concave lens normally, reflected by a dichroic mirror (900 nm long pass). The probe beam at λ2 = 1300 nm modulated by a “grating” is transformed and forms an “object” in the front of the lens by a 4f system. The focal lengths of “L1” and “L2” are 4 cm and 6 cm, respectively. The zero order diffraction beam of the grating is blocked because this beam can’t fulfill phase matching. The focal length of the plano-concave lens used in this setup is −9.8 mm and its edge thickness is 1.98 mm. The “image” formed by the 4 WM beam at λ3 = 578 nm is recorded by a home build microscopy, made of a 40× objective lens, a 600 nm short pass filter, a lens with focal length 15 cm and a high sensitive CCD camera. b-e, Images of the gratings in a collinear experimental setup. b, Object image with horizontal lines. c, Object image with vertical lines. d, Magnified image of the object with horizontal lines. e, magnified image of the object with vertical lines. The scale bar is 10 μm.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f4: Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a collinear configuration.a, The collinear experimental setup: The pump beam at λ1 = 800 nm is incident on the plano-concave lens normally, reflected by a dichroic mirror (900 nm long pass). The probe beam at λ2 = 1300 nm modulated by a “grating” is transformed and forms an “object” in the front of the lens by a 4f system. The focal lengths of “L1” and “L2” are 4 cm and 6 cm, respectively. The zero order diffraction beam of the grating is blocked because this beam can’t fulfill phase matching. The focal length of the plano-concave lens used in this setup is −9.8 mm and its edge thickness is 1.98 mm. The “image” formed by the 4 WM beam at λ3 = 578 nm is recorded by a home build microscopy, made of a 40× objective lens, a 600 nm short pass filter, a lens with focal length 15 cm and a high sensitive CCD camera. b-e, Images of the gratings in a collinear experimental setup. b, Object image with horizontal lines. c, Object image with vertical lines. d, Magnified image of the object with horizontal lines. e, magnified image of the object with vertical lines. The scale bar is 10 μm.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the 2D magnified images formed by the nonlinear magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration. It is noticeable that the horizontal features are much clearer than the vertical ones. This is because that the incident pump and probe beams both lay on the same horizontal plane, where only one small portion of phase matching ring near the horizontal plane in Fig. 1b is exploited, giving a better phase matching to 4 WMs on that plane, while not to 4 WMs on the vertical one (Supplementary Section 3 and 4). Hence, 4 WMs can be better generated and focused in the horizontal plane, giving a finer resolution. To overcome this limitation, we implement a collinear configuration shown in Fig. 4 to access the full phase matching ring in 3D vector space in Fig. 1b (Supplementary Section 5), where a normal incident pump beam combined with probe beams scattered off the image object can fulfill the phase matching condition around the full ring geometry in 3D vector space (Fig. 1b) to generate 4 WMs. Unlike the non-collinear configuration, both vertical and horizontal lines are clear now in Fig. 4d,e with a magnification around ~1.87 given by Equ. (2).

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus