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Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration.a, The non-collinear experimental setup:The pump and probe beams have the pulse duration of ~75 fs and repetition rate of 1 KHz. A delay line is added in the light path of the pump beam to ensure overlapping in time with the probe beam. A USAF resolution card, used as the “object”, is placed on the probe’s path, while the “image” formed with 4 WM beams can be captured by a color CCD camera. The focal length of the plano-concave lens is −13.5 cm and its edge thickness is 1 mm. b, Magnified images of the “numbers” in the USAF resolution card recorded at u = 3.25 cm, v = 15 cm in a non-collinear experimental setup. The corresponding original object images are shown in the insets. The scale bar is 500 μm.
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f3: Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration.a, The non-collinear experimental setup:The pump and probe beams have the pulse duration of ~75 fs and repetition rate of 1 KHz. A delay line is added in the light path of the pump beam to ensure overlapping in time with the probe beam. A USAF resolution card, used as the “object”, is placed on the probe’s path, while the “image” formed with 4 WM beams can be captured by a color CCD camera. The focal length of the plano-concave lens is −13.5 cm and its edge thickness is 1 mm. b, Magnified images of the “numbers” in the USAF resolution card recorded at u = 3.25 cm, v = 15 cm in a non-collinear experimental setup. The corresponding original object images are shown in the insets. The scale bar is 500 μm.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the 2D magnified images formed by the nonlinear magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration. It is noticeable that the horizontal features are much clearer than the vertical ones. This is because that the incident pump and probe beams both lay on the same horizontal plane, where only one small portion of phase matching ring near the horizontal plane in Fig. 1b is exploited, giving a better phase matching to 4 WMs on that plane, while not to 4 WMs on the vertical one (Supplementary Section 3 and 4). Hence, 4 WMs can be better generated and focused in the horizontal plane, giving a finer resolution. To overcome this limitation, we implement a collinear configuration shown in Fig. 4 to access the full phase matching ring in 3D vector space in Fig. 1b (Supplementary Section 5), where a normal incident pump beam combined with probe beams scattered off the image object can fulfill the phase matching condition around the full ring geometry in 3D vector space (Fig. 1b) to generate 4 WMs. Unlike the non-collinear configuration, both vertical and horizontal lines are clear now in Fig. 4d,e with a magnification around ~1.87 given by Equ. (2).


Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration.a, The non-collinear experimental setup:The pump and probe beams have the pulse duration of ~75 fs and repetition rate of 1 KHz. A delay line is added in the light path of the pump beam to ensure overlapping in time with the probe beam. A USAF resolution card, used as the “object”, is placed on the probe’s path, while the “image” formed with 4 WM beams can be captured by a color CCD camera. The focal length of the plano-concave lens is −13.5 cm and its edge thickness is 1 mm. b, Magnified images of the “numbers” in the USAF resolution card recorded at u = 3.25 cm, v = 15 cm in a non-collinear experimental setup. The corresponding original object images are shown in the insets. The scale bar is 500 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493703&req=5

f3: Experimental 2D images formed by the magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration.a, The non-collinear experimental setup:The pump and probe beams have the pulse duration of ~75 fs and repetition rate of 1 KHz. A delay line is added in the light path of the pump beam to ensure overlapping in time with the probe beam. A USAF resolution card, used as the “object”, is placed on the probe’s path, while the “image” formed with 4 WM beams can be captured by a color CCD camera. The focal length of the plano-concave lens is −13.5 cm and its edge thickness is 1 mm. b, Magnified images of the “numbers” in the USAF resolution card recorded at u = 3.25 cm, v = 15 cm in a non-collinear experimental setup. The corresponding original object images are shown in the insets. The scale bar is 500 μm.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the 2D magnified images formed by the nonlinear magnifying lens in a non-collinear configuration. It is noticeable that the horizontal features are much clearer than the vertical ones. This is because that the incident pump and probe beams both lay on the same horizontal plane, where only one small portion of phase matching ring near the horizontal plane in Fig. 1b is exploited, giving a better phase matching to 4 WMs on that plane, while not to 4 WMs on the vertical one (Supplementary Section 3 and 4). Hence, 4 WMs can be better generated and focused in the horizontal plane, giving a finer resolution. To overcome this limitation, we implement a collinear configuration shown in Fig. 4 to access the full phase matching ring in 3D vector space in Fig. 1b (Supplementary Section 5), where a normal incident pump beam combined with probe beams scattered off the image object can fulfill the phase matching condition around the full ring geometry in 3D vector space (Fig. 1b) to generate 4 WMs. Unlike the non-collinear configuration, both vertical and horizontal lines are clear now in Fig. 4d,e with a magnification around ~1.87 given by Equ. (2).

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus