Limits...
Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Imaging law of the nonlinear magnifying lens using negative refraction.a, Schematic of the imaging behavior of the magnifying lens. “O”, “VI” and “I” stand for object, virtual image and image respectively. “u, w, v, f” are object distance, virtual image distance, image distance and focal length. “VI” represents a virtual image formed by a thin nonlinear flat lens. b, Experimental captured images with different magnifications by varying object distances “u”. The images are recorded at image distances “v”, where they are clearest. The scale bar is 500 μm. c, d, The magnification factor as a function of the ratio of the image distance and the object distance “v/u” and the object distance “u”. The black circles are experimentally measured data. Solid red lines in c and d are theoretical curves according to Equ. (2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493703&req=5

f2: Imaging law of the nonlinear magnifying lens using negative refraction.a, Schematic of the imaging behavior of the magnifying lens. “O”, “VI” and “I” stand for object, virtual image and image respectively. “u, w, v, f” are object distance, virtual image distance, image distance and focal length. “VI” represents a virtual image formed by a thin nonlinear flat lens. b, Experimental captured images with different magnifications by varying object distances “u”. The images are recorded at image distances “v”, where they are clearest. The scale bar is 500 μm. c, d, The magnification factor as a function of the ratio of the image distance and the object distance “v/u” and the object distance “u”. The black circles are experimentally measured data. Solid red lines in c and d are theoretical curves according to Equ. (2).

Mentions: To elaborate this idea, we consider a four-wave mixing process in a plano-concave lens as shown in Fig. 2a. An intense normal incident pump beam can nonlinearly mix with a probe beam with an incidence angle matching the 4 WM phase matching condition in Fig. 1b to generate a 4 WM beam. In a nonlinear flat lens (i.e., double plano-surface slab)25, such 4 WM beams can be negatively refracted with respect to the probe as shown as the dash lines in Fig. 2a according to the nonlinear refraction law in Equ. (1). With a plano-concave lens, this nonlinear negative refraction can be weakened by the linear Snell’s refraction law on the concave surface (solid green lines in Fig. 2a), giving a magnified image. Therefore, by combining both the nonlinear refraction law and the linear Snell’s law, we can obtain the magnification as (Supplementary Section 2):


Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Imaging law of the nonlinear magnifying lens using negative refraction.a, Schematic of the imaging behavior of the magnifying lens. “O”, “VI” and “I” stand for object, virtual image and image respectively. “u, w, v, f” are object distance, virtual image distance, image distance and focal length. “VI” represents a virtual image formed by a thin nonlinear flat lens. b, Experimental captured images with different magnifications by varying object distances “u”. The images are recorded at image distances “v”, where they are clearest. The scale bar is 500 μm. c, d, The magnification factor as a function of the ratio of the image distance and the object distance “v/u” and the object distance “u”. The black circles are experimentally measured data. Solid red lines in c and d are theoretical curves according to Equ. (2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493703&req=5

f2: Imaging law of the nonlinear magnifying lens using negative refraction.a, Schematic of the imaging behavior of the magnifying lens. “O”, “VI” and “I” stand for object, virtual image and image respectively. “u, w, v, f” are object distance, virtual image distance, image distance and focal length. “VI” represents a virtual image formed by a thin nonlinear flat lens. b, Experimental captured images with different magnifications by varying object distances “u”. The images are recorded at image distances “v”, where they are clearest. The scale bar is 500 μm. c, d, The magnification factor as a function of the ratio of the image distance and the object distance “v/u” and the object distance “u”. The black circles are experimentally measured data. Solid red lines in c and d are theoretical curves according to Equ. (2).
Mentions: To elaborate this idea, we consider a four-wave mixing process in a plano-concave lens as shown in Fig. 2a. An intense normal incident pump beam can nonlinearly mix with a probe beam with an incidence angle matching the 4 WM phase matching condition in Fig. 1b to generate a 4 WM beam. In a nonlinear flat lens (i.e., double plano-surface slab)25, such 4 WM beams can be negatively refracted with respect to the probe as shown as the dash lines in Fig. 2a according to the nonlinear refraction law in Equ. (1). With a plano-concave lens, this nonlinear negative refraction can be weakened by the linear Snell’s refraction law on the concave surface (solid green lines in Fig. 2a), giving a magnified image. Therefore, by combining both the nonlinear refraction law and the linear Snell’s law, we can obtain the magnification as (Supplementary Section 2):

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus