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Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Illustration of the magnifying lens by nonlinear 4 WM.a, Schematic of negative refraction realized by the 4 WM process in a thin planar glass slide. In a special case when the pump beam at frequency ω1 is incident normally on the glass slide, the generated 4 WM beam at frequency ω3 will be refracted negatively with respect to the angle of the probe beam at frequency ω2. b, The phase matching condition for the degenerate 4 WM process in 3D wave vector space. The dashed ring line indicates the joint points of wave vector k2 and k3 that fulfill the phase matching condition: 2k1 − k2 − k3 = 0. c, Schematic of the experimental setup of the magnifying lens by 4 WM. The probe beam at ω2 that carries the object information can nonlinearly mix with the pump beam at ω1 in a plano-concave lens to give rise to the 4 WM beam which can form the magnified image of the object.
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f1: Illustration of the magnifying lens by nonlinear 4 WM.a, Schematic of negative refraction realized by the 4 WM process in a thin planar glass slide. In a special case when the pump beam at frequency ω1 is incident normally on the glass slide, the generated 4 WM beam at frequency ω3 will be refracted negatively with respect to the angle of the probe beam at frequency ω2. b, The phase matching condition for the degenerate 4 WM process in 3D wave vector space. The dashed ring line indicates the joint points of wave vector k2 and k3 that fulfill the phase matching condition: 2k1 − k2 − k3 = 0. c, Schematic of the experimental setup of the magnifying lens by 4 WM. The probe beam at ω2 that carries the object information can nonlinearly mix with the pump beam at ω1 in a plano-concave lens to give rise to the 4 WM beam which can form the magnified image of the object.

Mentions: Negative Refraction can occur in a nonlinear degenerate four-wave mixing scheme1719 as shown in Fig. 1a, where a thin slab of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) can internally mix an intense normal-incident pump beam at frequency ω1 with an angled-incident probe beam at frequency ω2, generating a 4 WM wave at frequency ω3 = 2ω1 − ω2, which is negatively refracted with respect to the probe’s incidence2025. Such nonlinear negative refraction arises from the momentum requirement of the phase matching condition: k3 = 2k1 − k2 during 4 WM in order to ensure efficient wavelength conversion. This phase matching condition can be further translated to a Snell-like angle dependence law and create an effective negative refractive index ne as (Supplementary Section 1):


Dielectric Optical-Controllable Magnifying Lens by Nonlinear Negative Refraction.

Cao J, Shang C, Zheng Y, Feng Y, Chen X, Liang X, Wan W - Sci Rep (2015)

Illustration of the magnifying lens by nonlinear 4 WM.a, Schematic of negative refraction realized by the 4 WM process in a thin planar glass slide. In a special case when the pump beam at frequency ω1 is incident normally on the glass slide, the generated 4 WM beam at frequency ω3 will be refracted negatively with respect to the angle of the probe beam at frequency ω2. b, The phase matching condition for the degenerate 4 WM process in 3D wave vector space. The dashed ring line indicates the joint points of wave vector k2 and k3 that fulfill the phase matching condition: 2k1 − k2 − k3 = 0. c, Schematic of the experimental setup of the magnifying lens by 4 WM. The probe beam at ω2 that carries the object information can nonlinearly mix with the pump beam at ω1 in a plano-concave lens to give rise to the 4 WM beam which can form the magnified image of the object.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493703&req=5

f1: Illustration of the magnifying lens by nonlinear 4 WM.a, Schematic of negative refraction realized by the 4 WM process in a thin planar glass slide. In a special case when the pump beam at frequency ω1 is incident normally on the glass slide, the generated 4 WM beam at frequency ω3 will be refracted negatively with respect to the angle of the probe beam at frequency ω2. b, The phase matching condition for the degenerate 4 WM process in 3D wave vector space. The dashed ring line indicates the joint points of wave vector k2 and k3 that fulfill the phase matching condition: 2k1 − k2 − k3 = 0. c, Schematic of the experimental setup of the magnifying lens by 4 WM. The probe beam at ω2 that carries the object information can nonlinearly mix with the pump beam at ω1 in a plano-concave lens to give rise to the 4 WM beam which can form the magnified image of the object.
Mentions: Negative Refraction can occur in a nonlinear degenerate four-wave mixing scheme1719 as shown in Fig. 1a, where a thin slab of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) can internally mix an intense normal-incident pump beam at frequency ω1 with an angled-incident probe beam at frequency ω2, generating a 4 WM wave at frequency ω3 = 2ω1 − ω2, which is negatively refracted with respect to the probe’s incidence2025. Such nonlinear negative refraction arises from the momentum requirement of the phase matching condition: k3 = 2k1 − k2 during 4 WM in order to ensure efficient wavelength conversion. This phase matching condition can be further translated to a Snell-like angle dependence law and create an effective negative refractive index ne as (Supplementary Section 1):

Bottom Line: A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices.However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication.Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education) and Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ABSTRACT
A simple optical lens plays an important role for exploring the microscopic world in science and technology by refracting light with tailored spatially varying refractive indices. Recent advancements in nanotechnology enable novel lenses, such as, superlens and hyperlens, with sub-wavelength resolution capabilities by specially designed materials' refractive indices with meta-materials and transformation optics. However, these artificially nano- or micro-engineered lenses usually suffer high losses from metals and are highly demanding in fabrication. Here, we experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, a nonlinear dielectric magnifying lens using negative refraction by degenerate four-wave mixing in a plano-concave glass slide, obtaining magnified images. Moreover, we transform a nonlinear flat lens into a magnifying lens by introducing transformation optics into the nonlinear regime, achieving an all-optical controllable lensing effect through nonlinear wave mixing, which may have many potential applications in microscopy and imaging science.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus