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Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect.

Al Nima A, Garcia D - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Results.The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27).Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants' (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structural equation model showing the correlations and standardized parameter estimates among the eight latent factors and among the latent factors and the items in the H-ISS.Chi-square = 1885.39, df = 465, p = .001; goodness of fit index = .90 and the root mean square error of approximation = .05 (N = 1,050).
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fig-2: Structural equation model showing the correlations and standardized parameter estimates among the eight latent factors and among the latent factors and the items in the H-ISS.Chi-square = 1885.39, df = 465, p = .001; goodness of fit index = .90 and the root mean square error of approximation = .05 (N = 1,050).

Mentions: After these further modifications, the chi-square value was still significant for the default model (Chi2 = 1885.39, df = 465, p < .001), the goodness of fit index for the default model was .90 and the root mean square error of approximation was .05. However, the chi-square statistic is heavily influenced by sample size (Kline, 2010), with larger samples leading to larger value and therefore, a larger likelihood of being significant. The goodness of fit index with a cut off value of .90 generally indicates acceptable model fit and the root mean square error of approximation with a cut off value of .05 also indicates good model fit (MacCallum, Browne & Sugawara, 1996). All the regression weights/loadings between scales and their items were significant at p < .001 (ranging from −.14 to .93) with the exception of the item “Try not to think about being unhappy”, which was significant at p = .003 and had a low loading (.11) within the mental control scale (see Fig. 2).


Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect.

Al Nima A, Garcia D - PeerJ (2015)

Structural equation model showing the correlations and standardized parameter estimates among the eight latent factors and among the latent factors and the items in the H-ISS.Chi-square = 1885.39, df = 465, p = .001; goodness of fit index = .90 and the root mean square error of approximation = .05 (N = 1,050).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493682&req=5

fig-2: Structural equation model showing the correlations and standardized parameter estimates among the eight latent factors and among the latent factors and the items in the H-ISS.Chi-square = 1885.39, df = 465, p = .001; goodness of fit index = .90 and the root mean square error of approximation = .05 (N = 1,050).
Mentions: After these further modifications, the chi-square value was still significant for the default model (Chi2 = 1885.39, df = 465, p < .001), the goodness of fit index for the default model was .90 and the root mean square error of approximation was .05. However, the chi-square statistic is heavily influenced by sample size (Kline, 2010), with larger samples leading to larger value and therefore, a larger likelihood of being significant. The goodness of fit index with a cut off value of .90 generally indicates acceptable model fit and the root mean square error of approximation with a cut off value of .05 also indicates good model fit (MacCallum, Browne & Sugawara, 1996). All the regression weights/loadings between scales and their items were significant at p < .001 (ranging from −.14 to .93) with the exception of the item “Try not to think about being unhappy”, which was significant at p = .003 and had a low loading (.11) within the mental control scale (see Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Results.The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27).Conclusions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.

ABSTRACT
Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants' (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R (2) = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R (2) = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus