Imaging neuroinflammation? A perspective from MR spectroscopy.
Bottom Line: Significant four-group comparisons were evident only for striatal choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-inositol (mI), which follow-up analysis demonstrated were due to higher levels in HA compared with C individuals.Higher levels of mI were related to greater lifetime alcohol consumed, whereas HAART was associated with lower mI levels.The current results suggest that competing mechanisms can influence in vivo Cho and mI levels, and that elevations in these metabolites cannot necessarily be interpreted as reflecting a single underlying mechanism, including neuroinflammation.
Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine (MC5723), Stanford, CA; Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: In the striatum, these four variables together explained 40% of the variance in Cho levels [F(35) = 5.31, P = 0.0022]. Indeed, just medication status (yes/no—on efavirenz or atripla) and thiamine levels together explained 40% of the striatal Cho variance [F(35) = 11.17, P = 0.0002]. Figure 3 presents parametric and non-parametric results of the effects of each of these four variables independently on Cho levels in the three regions. In the striatum, having HCV was associated with higher striatal Cho levels [t(64) = 2.3, P = 0.0234; χ2 = 8.57, P = 0.0034], but being on efavirenz was associated with lower striatal Cho levels [t(65) = 4.2, P ≤ 0.0001; χ2 = 14.14, P = 0.0002]. These competing effects on Cho levels (ie, HCV and an AIDS-defining event associated with higher Cho, being on efavirenz and low thiamine levels associated with lower Cho) were also seen in the cerebellum and pons, and likely contribute to the variance remaining relatively consistent whether two or four variables are included in the multiple regressions.
Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine (MC5723), Stanford, CA; Neuroscience Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.