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Maskless Lithography and in situ Visualization of Conductivity of Graphene using Helium Ion Microscopy.

Iberi V, Vlassiouk I, Zhang XG, Matola B, Linn A, Joy DC, Rondinone AJ - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics.With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices.In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

ABSTRACT
The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics. With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices. In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents. In this letter, we report the utility of scanning helium ion lithography for fabricating functional graphene nanoconductors that are supported directly on a silicon dioxide layer, and we measure the minimum feature size achievable due to limitations imposed by thermal fluctuations and ion scattering during the milling process. Further we demonstrate that ion beams, due to their positive charging nature, may be used to observe and test the conductivity of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices in situ.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

SHIM images of a graphene-based device that has been fabricated using direct-write Ne+ lithography.(Left panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with an L-shape conducting strip. The width of the conducting strip is ~100 nm. (Right panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with U-shape conducting strip. The width of the strip is ~250 nm. Scale bar is 1 μm.
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f3: SHIM images of a graphene-based device that has been fabricated using direct-write Ne+ lithography.(Left panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with an L-shape conducting strip. The width of the conducting strip is ~100 nm. (Right panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with U-shape conducting strip. The width of the strip is ~250 nm. Scale bar is 1 μm.

Mentions: Longer conducting graphene strips with different geometries were fabricated using the same method in order to investigate their effectiveness at longer length scales (micron length scale). Figure 3 displays supported graphene devices with longer strips that were fabricated using the Ne+ beam. Ne+ has a milling efficiency approximately 8 times greater per ion compared to He+ and can mill larger areas in a shorter time. The Ne+ beam was used in order to ensure that large structures were milled completely in the shortest time possible in order to prevent sample drift. Moreover, the positive charge of the Ne+ beam ensures a direct observation of the same positive charging effect in the graphene device. Although the geometry of the strip is nonlinear in Fig. 3 (left and middle panels), the pad remains conducting due to the absence of defects in the wire. The presence of defects in the wire leads to discontinuities in the conducting channel which would hinder electrons from getting to the graphene pad (see Supplementary Fig. S3 online). These images demonstrate that this approach may be used to fabricate large, complex and arbitrary structures with immediate feedback concerning quality.


Maskless Lithography and in situ Visualization of Conductivity of Graphene using Helium Ion Microscopy.

Iberi V, Vlassiouk I, Zhang XG, Matola B, Linn A, Joy DC, Rondinone AJ - Sci Rep (2015)

SHIM images of a graphene-based device that has been fabricated using direct-write Ne+ lithography.(Left panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with an L-shape conducting strip. The width of the conducting strip is ~100 nm. (Right panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with U-shape conducting strip. The width of the strip is ~250 nm. Scale bar is 1 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493665&req=5

f3: SHIM images of a graphene-based device that has been fabricated using direct-write Ne+ lithography.(Left panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with an L-shape conducting strip. The width of the conducting strip is ~100 nm. (Right panel) iSE image of conducting graphene pad with U-shape conducting strip. The width of the strip is ~250 nm. Scale bar is 1 μm.
Mentions: Longer conducting graphene strips with different geometries were fabricated using the same method in order to investigate their effectiveness at longer length scales (micron length scale). Figure 3 displays supported graphene devices with longer strips that were fabricated using the Ne+ beam. Ne+ has a milling efficiency approximately 8 times greater per ion compared to He+ and can mill larger areas in a shorter time. The Ne+ beam was used in order to ensure that large structures were milled completely in the shortest time possible in order to prevent sample drift. Moreover, the positive charge of the Ne+ beam ensures a direct observation of the same positive charging effect in the graphene device. Although the geometry of the strip is nonlinear in Fig. 3 (left and middle panels), the pad remains conducting due to the absence of defects in the wire. The presence of defects in the wire leads to discontinuities in the conducting channel which would hinder electrons from getting to the graphene pad (see Supplementary Fig. S3 online). These images demonstrate that this approach may be used to fabricate large, complex and arbitrary structures with immediate feedback concerning quality.

Bottom Line: The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics.With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices.In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

ABSTRACT
The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics. With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices. In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents. In this letter, we report the utility of scanning helium ion lithography for fabricating functional graphene nanoconductors that are supported directly on a silicon dioxide layer, and we measure the minimum feature size achievable due to limitations imposed by thermal fluctuations and ion scattering during the milling process. Further we demonstrate that ion beams, due to their positive charging nature, may be used to observe and test the conductivity of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices in situ.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus