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Species-level determination of closely related araucarian resins using FTIR spectroscopy and its implications for the provenance of New Zealand amber.

Seyfullah LJ, Sadowski EM, Schmidt AR - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we focus on resins produced from today's most resinous conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which are thought to be the parent plants of some of the Southern Hemisphere's fossil resin deposits.The resin FTIR spectra are distinguishable from each other, and the three Araucaria species sampled produced similar FTIR spectra, to which Wollemia resin is most similar.Interspecific variability of the FTIR spectra is greatest in the three Agathis species tested.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geobiology, University of Göttingen , Göttingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Some higher plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms, can produce resins and some of these resins can polymerize and fossilize to form ambers. Various physical and chemical techniques have been used to identify and profile different plant resins and have then been applied to fossilized resins (ambers), to try to detect their parent plant affinities and understand the process of polymerization, with varying levels of success. Here we focus on resins produced from today's most resinous conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which are thought to be the parent plants of some of the Southern Hemisphere's fossil resin deposits. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the resins of closely related Araucariaceae species were examined to test whether they could be distinguished at genus and species level and whether the results could then be used to infer the parent plant of a New Zealand amber. The resin FTIR spectra are distinguishable from each other, and the three Araucaria species sampled produced similar FTIR spectra, to which Wollemia resin is most similar. Interspecific variability of the FTIR spectra is greatest in the three Agathis species tested. The New Zealand amber sample is similar in key shared features with the resin samples, but it does differ from the extant resin samples in key distinguishing features, nonetheless it is most similar to the resin of Agathis australis in this dataset. However on comparison with previously published FTIR spectra of similar aged amber and older (Eocene) resinites both found in coals from New Zealand and fresh Agathis australis resin, our amber has some features that imply a relatively immature resin, which was not expected from an amber of the Miocene age.

No MeSH data available.


Close-up of the 1,550–650 cm−1 spectral region of the Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of araucarian resins and a Miocene New Zealand amber shown in Fig. 4.
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fig-5: Close-up of the 1,550–650 cm−1 spectral region of the Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of araucarian resins and a Miocene New Zealand amber shown in Fig. 4.

Mentions: The FTIR results (Fig. 4) show that the seven resins and the Miocene amber from New Zealand are clearly true plant resins, since they appear to have generally similar spectra, but they are distinguishable from each other. Analysis of the key features of the spectra helps to compare and distinguish the resins (Table 2). Moving from left to right across the spectra, key features are highlighted (Figs. 4 and 5). The first is a shoulder generally found around 3,400 cm−1 of variable amplitude caused by the stretching of O–H bonds, although it is absent in Agathis lanceolata, Agathis ovata and Wollemia. All samples share a small peak at 3,076 cm−1 caused by the asymmetric C–H stretching of monoalkyl groups and a more prominent peak at around 2,935 cm−1 represents a doublet produced by methylene groups, as well as two smaller peaks off the shoulder of the prominent (2,935 cm−1) peak at 2,870 cm−1 and 2,848 cm−1. These three peaks result from aliphatic stretching of single C–H bonds. The 2,870 cm−1 peak is associated with methyl groups and the 2,848 cm−1 one is a doublet produced by methylene groups.


Species-level determination of closely related araucarian resins using FTIR spectroscopy and its implications for the provenance of New Zealand amber.

Seyfullah LJ, Sadowski EM, Schmidt AR - PeerJ (2015)

Close-up of the 1,550–650 cm−1 spectral region of the Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of araucarian resins and a Miocene New Zealand amber shown in Fig. 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493646&req=5

fig-5: Close-up of the 1,550–650 cm−1 spectral region of the Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of araucarian resins and a Miocene New Zealand amber shown in Fig. 4.
Mentions: The FTIR results (Fig. 4) show that the seven resins and the Miocene amber from New Zealand are clearly true plant resins, since they appear to have generally similar spectra, but they are distinguishable from each other. Analysis of the key features of the spectra helps to compare and distinguish the resins (Table 2). Moving from left to right across the spectra, key features are highlighted (Figs. 4 and 5). The first is a shoulder generally found around 3,400 cm−1 of variable amplitude caused by the stretching of O–H bonds, although it is absent in Agathis lanceolata, Agathis ovata and Wollemia. All samples share a small peak at 3,076 cm−1 caused by the asymmetric C–H stretching of monoalkyl groups and a more prominent peak at around 2,935 cm−1 represents a doublet produced by methylene groups, as well as two smaller peaks off the shoulder of the prominent (2,935 cm−1) peak at 2,870 cm−1 and 2,848 cm−1. These three peaks result from aliphatic stretching of single C–H bonds. The 2,870 cm−1 peak is associated with methyl groups and the 2,848 cm−1 one is a doublet produced by methylene groups.

Bottom Line: Here we focus on resins produced from today's most resinous conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which are thought to be the parent plants of some of the Southern Hemisphere's fossil resin deposits.The resin FTIR spectra are distinguishable from each other, and the three Araucaria species sampled produced similar FTIR spectra, to which Wollemia resin is most similar.Interspecific variability of the FTIR spectra is greatest in the three Agathis species tested.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Geobiology, University of Göttingen , Göttingen , Germany.

ABSTRACT
Some higher plants, both angiosperms and gymnosperms, can produce resins and some of these resins can polymerize and fossilize to form ambers. Various physical and chemical techniques have been used to identify and profile different plant resins and have then been applied to fossilized resins (ambers), to try to detect their parent plant affinities and understand the process of polymerization, with varying levels of success. Here we focus on resins produced from today's most resinous conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which are thought to be the parent plants of some of the Southern Hemisphere's fossil resin deposits. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the resins of closely related Araucariaceae species were examined to test whether they could be distinguished at genus and species level and whether the results could then be used to infer the parent plant of a New Zealand amber. The resin FTIR spectra are distinguishable from each other, and the three Araucaria species sampled produced similar FTIR spectra, to which Wollemia resin is most similar. Interspecific variability of the FTIR spectra is greatest in the three Agathis species tested. The New Zealand amber sample is similar in key shared features with the resin samples, but it does differ from the extant resin samples in key distinguishing features, nonetheless it is most similar to the resin of Agathis australis in this dataset. However on comparison with previously published FTIR spectra of similar aged amber and older (Eocene) resinites both found in coals from New Zealand and fresh Agathis australis resin, our amber has some features that imply a relatively immature resin, which was not expected from an amber of the Miocene age.

No MeSH data available.