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Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction.

Hambly C, Speakman JR - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision.Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls.On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen , UK.

ABSTRACT
Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. 'Gorging' mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction.

No MeSH data available.


Mean daily dry food intake (g/day) during baseline, restriction and diet choice for the three groups (controls, gorgers and non-gorgers).The diet choice period is the combined intake for high fat, protein and carbohydrate diets. Standard error bars are shown.
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fig-1: Mean daily dry food intake (g/day) during baseline, restriction and diet choice for the three groups (controls, gorgers and non-gorgers).The diet choice period is the combined intake for high fat, protein and carbohydrate diets. Standard error bars are shown.

Mentions: Each restricted mouse received exactly 25% less food than it consumed when provided with food ad lib which was, as expected, a significant reduction in food and energy intake (Fig. 1). There was a significant increase in the daily food intake of control mice over the same time period as the restriction by an average of 0.72 ± 0.19 g/day (10.8%) (Paired t-test P = 0.02). Consequently the realised restriction relative to controls averaged 35%. Mice that showed gorging behavior were apparent after only 3 days of restriction with significant increases in 2 h food intake above the control and non-gorging mice occurring in some individuals, even on day 1. The extent of gorging behavior increased throughout the 14 day measurement period so that the increase in 2 h food intake was highly significant when averaged over the last 5 days of the restriction (ANOVA F2, 27 = 44.8, P < 0.001). Gorging mice ate an average of 51.6% ± 5.98% of their total food intake in 2 h, which was 3 times that eaten by non-gorgers in the same period and 21 times higher than the controls (Fig. 2). The ‘non-gorgers’ also increased their 2 h food intake during restriction but did not exceed the arbitrary limit to become defined as a gorger (25% of available food in 2 h) as they only consumed an average of 15.8% ± 1.98% of their total food intake in 2 h, which was significantly above the controls that ate 15 ± 0.33% of their 24 h food intake over the same 2 h period.


Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction.

Hambly C, Speakman JR - PeerJ (2015)

Mean daily dry food intake (g/day) during baseline, restriction and diet choice for the three groups (controls, gorgers and non-gorgers).The diet choice period is the combined intake for high fat, protein and carbohydrate diets. Standard error bars are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493644&req=5

fig-1: Mean daily dry food intake (g/day) during baseline, restriction and diet choice for the three groups (controls, gorgers and non-gorgers).The diet choice period is the combined intake for high fat, protein and carbohydrate diets. Standard error bars are shown.
Mentions: Each restricted mouse received exactly 25% less food than it consumed when provided with food ad lib which was, as expected, a significant reduction in food and energy intake (Fig. 1). There was a significant increase in the daily food intake of control mice over the same time period as the restriction by an average of 0.72 ± 0.19 g/day (10.8%) (Paired t-test P = 0.02). Consequently the realised restriction relative to controls averaged 35%. Mice that showed gorging behavior were apparent after only 3 days of restriction with significant increases in 2 h food intake above the control and non-gorging mice occurring in some individuals, even on day 1. The extent of gorging behavior increased throughout the 14 day measurement period so that the increase in 2 h food intake was highly significant when averaged over the last 5 days of the restriction (ANOVA F2, 27 = 44.8, P < 0.001). Gorging mice ate an average of 51.6% ± 5.98% of their total food intake in 2 h, which was 3 times that eaten by non-gorgers in the same period and 21 times higher than the controls (Fig. 2). The ‘non-gorgers’ also increased their 2 h food intake during restriction but did not exceed the arbitrary limit to become defined as a gorger (25% of available food in 2 h) as they only consumed an average of 15.8% ± 1.98% of their total food intake in 2 h, which was significantly above the controls that ate 15 ± 0.33% of their 24 h food intake over the same 2 h period.

Bottom Line: Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision.Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls.On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen , UK.

ABSTRACT
Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. 'Gorging' mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction.

No MeSH data available.