Limits...
The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

Kraemer MU, Sinka ME, Duda KA, Mylne AQ, Shearer FM, Barker CM, Moore CG, Carvalho RG, Coelho GE, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Elyazar IR, Teng HJ, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Pigott DM, Scott TW, Smith DL, Wint GR, Golding N, Hay SI - Elife (2015)

Bottom Line: Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution.We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe.It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Dengue and chikungunya are increasing global public health concerns due to their rapid geographical spread and increasing disease burden. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus remains incomplete and is complicated by an ongoing range expansion fuelled by increased global trade and travel. Mapping the global distribution of these vectors and the geographical determinants of their ranges is essential for public health planning. Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution. We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe. These maps will help define the spatial limits of current autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The distribution of the occurrence database for Ae. aegypti (A) and Ae. albopictus (B) plotted on the underlying prediction surface.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347.008
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fig1s4: The distribution of the occurrence database for Ae. aegypti (A) and Ae. albopictus (B) plotted on the underlying prediction surface.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347.008

Mentions: The database used for this study contains information on the known global occurrences of the adults, pupae, larvae or eggs of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus globally from 1960–2014. We included data from a variety of sources, including (1) published literature and (2) primary and unpublished occurrence data from national and international entomological surveys. To our knowledge this is the largest, most comprehensive global dataset for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Confirmed Aedes occurrences were entered in the database after a comprehensive literature search using methods described elsewhere (Kraemer et al., 2015a; Kraemer et al., 2015b; http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.47v3c). In short, this included extracting all available location (latitude and longitude) information from the relevant articles, primarily using Google Maps (http://www.google.com/maps) so that it matched the spatial resolution of our covariate datasets of approximately 5 km × 5 km. Primary and unpublished data sources were obtained from Brazil, Europe, Indonesia, Taiwan, and the United States. After consolidating all data into two large databases for each species, independently they underwent spatial and temporal standardization. An occurrence record was defined as a single occurrence at a given unique location within one calendar year. This was important to avoid over-representation in regions where multiple surveys per year were performed, such as Taiwan or Brazil. To ensure the accuracy of the data we overlaid the geolocated occurrence points with a raster that distinguished land from water. Any records that were positioned outside the land area were subsequently removed. In total we assembled 19,930 and 22,137 occurrence records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively. The distribution of occurrence points are plotted in Figure 1—figure supplement 4.


The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

Kraemer MU, Sinka ME, Duda KA, Mylne AQ, Shearer FM, Barker CM, Moore CG, Carvalho RG, Coelho GE, Van Bortel W, Hendrickx G, Schaffner F, Elyazar IR, Teng HJ, Brady OJ, Messina JP, Pigott DM, Scott TW, Smith DL, Wint GR, Golding N, Hay SI - Elife (2015)

The distribution of the occurrence database for Ae. aegypti (A) and Ae. albopictus (B) plotted on the underlying prediction surface.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347.008
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493616&req=5

fig1s4: The distribution of the occurrence database for Ae. aegypti (A) and Ae. albopictus (B) plotted on the underlying prediction surface.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08347.008
Mentions: The database used for this study contains information on the known global occurrences of the adults, pupae, larvae or eggs of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus globally from 1960–2014. We included data from a variety of sources, including (1) published literature and (2) primary and unpublished occurrence data from national and international entomological surveys. To our knowledge this is the largest, most comprehensive global dataset for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Confirmed Aedes occurrences were entered in the database after a comprehensive literature search using methods described elsewhere (Kraemer et al., 2015a; Kraemer et al., 2015b; http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.47v3c). In short, this included extracting all available location (latitude and longitude) information from the relevant articles, primarily using Google Maps (http://www.google.com/maps) so that it matched the spatial resolution of our covariate datasets of approximately 5 km × 5 km. Primary and unpublished data sources were obtained from Brazil, Europe, Indonesia, Taiwan, and the United States. After consolidating all data into two large databases for each species, independently they underwent spatial and temporal standardization. An occurrence record was defined as a single occurrence at a given unique location within one calendar year. This was important to avoid over-representation in regions where multiple surveys per year were performed, such as Taiwan or Brazil. To ensure the accuracy of the data we overlaid the geolocated occurrence points with a raster that distinguished land from water. Any records that were positioned outside the land area were subsequently removed. In total we assembled 19,930 and 22,137 occurrence records for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively. The distribution of occurrence points are plotted in Figure 1—figure supplement 4.

Bottom Line: Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution.We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe.It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Dengue and chikungunya are increasing global public health concerns due to their rapid geographical spread and increasing disease burden. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus remains incomplete and is complicated by an ongoing range expansion fuelled by increased global trade and travel. Mapping the global distribution of these vectors and the geographical determinants of their ranges is essential for public health planning. Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution. We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe. These maps will help define the spatial limits of current autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus