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Combined impacts of global changes on biodiversity across the USA.

Bellard C, Leclerc C, Courchamp F - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction.These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur.This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Genetics, Evolution &Environment, Div Biosciences, Center for Biodiversity, Environment &Research, University College of London [2] Ecologie, Systématique &Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079, Univ. Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction. We lack spatially explicit assessments of the intensity of multiple threats and their impacts on biodiversity. Here, we used a novel metric of cumulative threats and impacts to assess the consequences of multiple threats on 196 endemic species across the USA. We predict that large areas with high cumulative impact scores for amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles will be concentrated in the eastern part of the USA by the 2050 s and 2080  . These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur. This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Relationship between cumulative impact values (in the 2080s under the A1B emission scenario) and individual threat intensities or species richness (SR) across the USA:(A) Correlation coefficient (Pearson) for each individual threat value with the cumulative impact values; (B) the PCA biplot showing the factors explaining the spatial variation of cumulative impact values and scores, colored by taxa. Acronyms: IAS (Invasive Alien Species), CC (Climate Change), SLR (Sea Level Rise), SR (Species Richness threatened by the given threat). Figure created in R 3.1.1.
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f4: Relationship between cumulative impact values (in the 2080s under the A1B emission scenario) and individual threat intensities or species richness (SR) across the USA:(A) Correlation coefficient (Pearson) for each individual threat value with the cumulative impact values; (B) the PCA biplot showing the factors explaining the spatial variation of cumulative impact values and scores, colored by taxa. Acronyms: IAS (Invasive Alien Species), CC (Climate Change), SLR (Sea Level Rise), SR (Species Richness threatened by the given threat). Figure created in R 3.1.1.

Mentions: The spatial distribution of threats and relative vulnerability of biodiversity to these threats play a major role in producing the observed spatial variation in cumulative impact values (Fig. 4). Invasive alien species followed by climate change, and change of land use to croplands and pastures showed broad positive correlation with cumulative impact values across the different taxa (Fig. 4A). In addition, endemic species richness vulnerable to invasive alien species, Developed, Cropland, Grassland, and Pasture were also positively correlated with cumulative impact values. Hence, variation in cumulative impacts was driven largely by concordant spatial patterns in multiple threats (i.e., invasive species, climate change, Developed, Cropland, Grassland, and Pasture areas) and high species richness vulnerable to these threats (Fig. 4B). More specifically, some threats were associated with high cumulative impact values on some taxa (see also Figure S6, 7, 8, and 9). For example, invasive alien species, Cropland, Developed and the presence of amphibians vulnerable to these threats were positively correlated with high cumulative impact values (Fig. 4A and S6). Species vulnerable to Developed, Grassland, Pasture, and Cropland threats also showed a broad positive correlation with cumulative impact values for reptiles; other taxa such as mammals were also predicted to be particularly vulnerable to mining areas (Fig. 4A).


Combined impacts of global changes on biodiversity across the USA.

Bellard C, Leclerc C, Courchamp F - Sci Rep (2015)

Relationship between cumulative impact values (in the 2080s under the A1B emission scenario) and individual threat intensities or species richness (SR) across the USA:(A) Correlation coefficient (Pearson) for each individual threat value with the cumulative impact values; (B) the PCA biplot showing the factors explaining the spatial variation of cumulative impact values and scores, colored by taxa. Acronyms: IAS (Invasive Alien Species), CC (Climate Change), SLR (Sea Level Rise), SR (Species Richness threatened by the given threat). Figure created in R 3.1.1.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493580&req=5

f4: Relationship between cumulative impact values (in the 2080s under the A1B emission scenario) and individual threat intensities or species richness (SR) across the USA:(A) Correlation coefficient (Pearson) for each individual threat value with the cumulative impact values; (B) the PCA biplot showing the factors explaining the spatial variation of cumulative impact values and scores, colored by taxa. Acronyms: IAS (Invasive Alien Species), CC (Climate Change), SLR (Sea Level Rise), SR (Species Richness threatened by the given threat). Figure created in R 3.1.1.
Mentions: The spatial distribution of threats and relative vulnerability of biodiversity to these threats play a major role in producing the observed spatial variation in cumulative impact values (Fig. 4). Invasive alien species followed by climate change, and change of land use to croplands and pastures showed broad positive correlation with cumulative impact values across the different taxa (Fig. 4A). In addition, endemic species richness vulnerable to invasive alien species, Developed, Cropland, Grassland, and Pasture were also positively correlated with cumulative impact values. Hence, variation in cumulative impacts was driven largely by concordant spatial patterns in multiple threats (i.e., invasive species, climate change, Developed, Cropland, Grassland, and Pasture areas) and high species richness vulnerable to these threats (Fig. 4B). More specifically, some threats were associated with high cumulative impact values on some taxa (see also Figure S6, 7, 8, and 9). For example, invasive alien species, Cropland, Developed and the presence of amphibians vulnerable to these threats were positively correlated with high cumulative impact values (Fig. 4A and S6). Species vulnerable to Developed, Grassland, Pasture, and Cropland threats also showed a broad positive correlation with cumulative impact values for reptiles; other taxa such as mammals were also predicted to be particularly vulnerable to mining areas (Fig. 4A).

Bottom Line: Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction.These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur.This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Genetics, Evolution &Environment, Div Biosciences, Center for Biodiversity, Environment &Research, University College of London [2] Ecologie, Systématique &Evolution, UMR CNRS 8079, Univ. Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France.

ABSTRACT
Most studies of the effects of global changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat, but multiple threats lead to species extinction. We lack spatially explicit assessments of the intensity of multiple threats and their impacts on biodiversity. Here, we used a novel metric of cumulative threats and impacts to assess the consequences of multiple threats on 196 endemic species across the USA. We predict that large areas with high cumulative impact scores for amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles will be concentrated in the eastern part of the USA by the 2050 s and 2080  . These high cumulative impact values are due mainly to the presence of invasive species, climate change, cropland and pasture areas; additionally, a significant proportion of endemic species are vulnerable to some of these threats where they occur. This analysis provides a useful means of identifying where conservation measures and monitoring programs that should consider multiple threats should be implemented in the future.

No MeSH data available.