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Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

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Schematic representation of molecular beacon.
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biosensors-05-00337-f017: Schematic representation of molecular beacon.

Mentions: Molecular beacons are hybridization probes that can report the presence of complementary nucleic acid targets without having to separate probe–target hybrids from excess probes in the hybridization assay (Figure 17) [90,91]. Because of this property, they have been used for the detection of RNAs within living cells, to monitor the synthesis of specific nucleic acids in sealed reaction vessels, and for the construction of self-reporting oligonucleotide arrays [92,93]. They can be used to perform homogeneous one-tube assays for the identification of single-nucleotide variations in DNA and for the detection of pathogens. A molecular beacon probe is a hairpin-shaped, single-stranded ONT comprised of a probe sequence embedded within complementary sequences that form a hairpin stem. A fluorophore is covalently attached to one end of the oligonucleotide, and a nonfluorescent quencher is covalently attached to the other end. In the absence of a target, the stem of the hairpin holds the fluorophore so close to the quencher that fluorescence does not occur. When the probe binds to its target, the rigidity of the probe–target duplex forces the stem to unwind, causing the separation of the fluorophore and the quencher and restoration of fluorescence. This permits the detection of probe–target hybrids in the presence of unhybridized probes.


Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic representation of molecular beacon.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493553&req=5

biosensors-05-00337-f017: Schematic representation of molecular beacon.
Mentions: Molecular beacons are hybridization probes that can report the presence of complementary nucleic acid targets without having to separate probe–target hybrids from excess probes in the hybridization assay (Figure 17) [90,91]. Because of this property, they have been used for the detection of RNAs within living cells, to monitor the synthesis of specific nucleic acids in sealed reaction vessels, and for the construction of self-reporting oligonucleotide arrays [92,93]. They can be used to perform homogeneous one-tube assays for the identification of single-nucleotide variations in DNA and for the detection of pathogens. A molecular beacon probe is a hairpin-shaped, single-stranded ONT comprised of a probe sequence embedded within complementary sequences that form a hairpin stem. A fluorophore is covalently attached to one end of the oligonucleotide, and a nonfluorescent quencher is covalently attached to the other end. In the absence of a target, the stem of the hairpin holds the fluorophore so close to the quencher that fluorescence does not occur. When the probe binds to its target, the rigidity of the probe–target duplex forces the stem to unwind, causing the separation of the fluorophore and the quencher and restoration of fluorescence. This permits the detection of probe–target hybrids in the presence of unhybridized probes.

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus