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Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

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Chemical structures of magnesium fluorescent probes possessing β-diketone group.
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biosensors-05-00337-f007: Chemical structures of magnesium fluorescent probes possessing β-diketone group.

Mentions: Mg2+ fluorescent indicators possessing APTRA as Mg2+ binding site recognize and bind Ca2+ more tightly than Mg2+ (for example, the ratio between KMg and KCa was 0.013 in Mag-Fura-2, 0.013 in Mag-Indo-1, and 0.003 in Magnesium Green), which interferes with correct Mg2+ measurement and limits the interpretation of the read-out [48,49]. Therefore, Suzuki et al. reported the development of a novel Mg2+ fluorescent molecular probe KMG-20-AM (shown in Figure 7), in which AM is an acetoxymethyl group, based on a coumarin possessing a charged β-diketone structure [50]. This fluorescent probe produces a red shift from 425 to 445 nm in the absorption spectra after formation of a complex with Mg2+. The fluorescence spectrum of this probe also showed a red shift from 485 to 495 nm and an increase in fluorescence intensity after Mg2+ complex formation. This probe showed a “seesaw-type” fluorescent spectral change with the isosbestic point at 480 nm due to the light excitation at 445 nm, which indicates that ratiometry can be used for the measurement. The dissociation constant (Kd) of KMG-20-AM was 10.0 mM. The association constants of the probe are ~3 times higher for Mg2+ than for Ca2+, and the selectivity of Mg2+ over Ca2+ is over 200 times higher than that of other Mg2+ fluorescent molecular probes such as mag-fura-2 and Magnesium Green. This type of probe was applied for intracellular fluorescent imaging of Mg2+. After the addition of KMG-20-AM into PC12 cells, strong fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm and weak fluorescence in the nuclear region. After treatment with high-K+ medium, the fluorescence intensity increased due to increasing intracellular Mg2+ concentrations. The Mg2+ release from intracellular stores was successfully imaged using this Mg2+ fluorescent probe. As another application of KMG-20-AM, Kopelman et al. developed intracellular Mg2+-sensitive nanoparticles using PEBBLEs [51].


Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Chemical structures of magnesium fluorescent probes possessing β-diketone group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493553&req=5

biosensors-05-00337-f007: Chemical structures of magnesium fluorescent probes possessing β-diketone group.
Mentions: Mg2+ fluorescent indicators possessing APTRA as Mg2+ binding site recognize and bind Ca2+ more tightly than Mg2+ (for example, the ratio between KMg and KCa was 0.013 in Mag-Fura-2, 0.013 in Mag-Indo-1, and 0.003 in Magnesium Green), which interferes with correct Mg2+ measurement and limits the interpretation of the read-out [48,49]. Therefore, Suzuki et al. reported the development of a novel Mg2+ fluorescent molecular probe KMG-20-AM (shown in Figure 7), in which AM is an acetoxymethyl group, based on a coumarin possessing a charged β-diketone structure [50]. This fluorescent probe produces a red shift from 425 to 445 nm in the absorption spectra after formation of a complex with Mg2+. The fluorescence spectrum of this probe also showed a red shift from 485 to 495 nm and an increase in fluorescence intensity after Mg2+ complex formation. This probe showed a “seesaw-type” fluorescent spectral change with the isosbestic point at 480 nm due to the light excitation at 445 nm, which indicates that ratiometry can be used for the measurement. The dissociation constant (Kd) of KMG-20-AM was 10.0 mM. The association constants of the probe are ~3 times higher for Mg2+ than for Ca2+, and the selectivity of Mg2+ over Ca2+ is over 200 times higher than that of other Mg2+ fluorescent molecular probes such as mag-fura-2 and Magnesium Green. This type of probe was applied for intracellular fluorescent imaging of Mg2+. After the addition of KMG-20-AM into PC12 cells, strong fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm and weak fluorescence in the nuclear region. After treatment with high-K+ medium, the fluorescence intensity increased due to increasing intracellular Mg2+ concentrations. The Mg2+ release from intracellular stores was successfully imaged using this Mg2+ fluorescent probe. As another application of KMG-20-AM, Kopelman et al. developed intracellular Mg2+-sensitive nanoparticles using PEBBLEs [51].

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus