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Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the cell loading process of fura-2.
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biosensors-05-00337-f004: Schematic representation of the cell loading process of fura-2.

Mentions: To load the fluorescent indicators into living cells, the carboxylate groups or phenolic hydroxyl groups in fura-2 are derivatized as acetoxymethyl or acetate esters, respectively. Once inside the cell, these derivatives are hydrolyzed by intracellular esterases, and indicators possessing carboxylate anions for the recognition of Ca2+ are released into the living cell (Figure 4) [15]. Because of these advantages, particularly the wavelength sensitivity to Ca2+, fura-2 is the preferred dye for many applications involving optical detection and quantification of this ubiquitous signaling ion, both inside living cells and in extracellular environments [16,17]. For example, fluorescent calcium probes are used to monitor synaptic transmissions, subcellular calcium release mechanisms in the nucleus and cytosol, and organelle-specific calcium concentration changes [18,19,20,21,22]. Since the development of fura-2, a significant effort has been made to tailor the ion-binding affinities, live cell loading, distribution properties, and wavelength dependencies for specific applications.


Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic representation of the cell loading process of fura-2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493553&req=5

biosensors-05-00337-f004: Schematic representation of the cell loading process of fura-2.
Mentions: To load the fluorescent indicators into living cells, the carboxylate groups or phenolic hydroxyl groups in fura-2 are derivatized as acetoxymethyl or acetate esters, respectively. Once inside the cell, these derivatives are hydrolyzed by intracellular esterases, and indicators possessing carboxylate anions for the recognition of Ca2+ are released into the living cell (Figure 4) [15]. Because of these advantages, particularly the wavelength sensitivity to Ca2+, fura-2 is the preferred dye for many applications involving optical detection and quantification of this ubiquitous signaling ion, both inside living cells and in extracellular environments [16,17]. For example, fluorescent calcium probes are used to monitor synaptic transmissions, subcellular calcium release mechanisms in the nucleus and cytosol, and organelle-specific calcium concentration changes [18,19,20,21,22]. Since the development of fura-2, a significant effort has been made to tailor the ion-binding affinities, live cell loading, distribution properties, and wavelength dependencies for specific applications.

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus