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Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

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Principle of fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) sensors (a), and spectral shift of PCT (Photoinduced Charge Transfer) sensors resulting from interaction of a bound sample with an electron-donating or electron-accepting group (b).
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biosensors-05-00337-f002: Principle of fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) sensors (a), and spectral shift of PCT (Photoinduced Charge Transfer) sensors resulting from interaction of a bound sample with an electron-donating or electron-accepting group (b).

Mentions: PCT, on the other hand, involves intramolecular charge transfer from the electron donor to the electron acceptor upon excitation by light when a fluorophore contains an electron-donating group (often an amino group) conjugated to an electron-accepting group [7,8,9,10]. The consequent change in dipole moment results in a Stokes shift that depends on the microenvironment of the fluorophore. Polarity probes have been designed on this basis. Thus, it can be anticipated that target substances in close interaction with the electron donor or the electron acceptor moiety will change the photophysical properties of the fluorophore, because the complexed chemical substances affects the efficiency of the intramolecular charge transfer. When an electron donor within the fluorophore interacts with a sample, the latter reduces the electron-donating character of this group. Due to the resulting reduction of conjugation, a blue shift in the absorption spectrum is expected together with a decrease in the extinction coefficient. On the other hand, a sample interacting with the electron acceptor group enhances the electron-withdrawing characteristic of this group. The absorption spectrum is thus red-shifted and the molar absorption coefficient is increased. The fluorescence spectra are in principle shifted in the same direction as those of the absorption spectra (Figure 2).


Development of Functional Fluorescent Molecular Probes for the Detection of Biological Substances.

Suzuki Y, Yokoyama K - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Principle of fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) sensors (a), and spectral shift of PCT (Photoinduced Charge Transfer) sensors resulting from interaction of a bound sample with an electron-donating or electron-accepting group (b).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493553&req=5

biosensors-05-00337-f002: Principle of fluorescent PET (Photoinduced Electron Transfer) sensors (a), and spectral shift of PCT (Photoinduced Charge Transfer) sensors resulting from interaction of a bound sample with an electron-donating or electron-accepting group (b).
Mentions: PCT, on the other hand, involves intramolecular charge transfer from the electron donor to the electron acceptor upon excitation by light when a fluorophore contains an electron-donating group (often an amino group) conjugated to an electron-accepting group [7,8,9,10]. The consequent change in dipole moment results in a Stokes shift that depends on the microenvironment of the fluorophore. Polarity probes have been designed on this basis. Thus, it can be anticipated that target substances in close interaction with the electron donor or the electron acceptor moiety will change the photophysical properties of the fluorophore, because the complexed chemical substances affects the efficiency of the intramolecular charge transfer. When an electron donor within the fluorophore interacts with a sample, the latter reduces the electron-donating character of this group. Due to the resulting reduction of conjugation, a blue shift in the absorption spectrum is expected together with a decrease in the extinction coefficient. On the other hand, a sample interacting with the electron acceptor group enhances the electron-withdrawing characteristic of this group. The absorption spectrum is thus red-shifted and the molar absorption coefficient is increased. The fluorescence spectra are in principle shifted in the same direction as those of the absorption spectra (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information.Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors.To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Health Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8566, Japan. suzuki-yoshio@aist.go.jp.

ABSTRACT
This review is confined to sensors that use fluorescence to transmit biochemical information. Fluorescence is, by far, the most frequently exploited phenomenon for chemical sensors and biosensors. Parameters that define the application of such sensors include intensity, decay time, anisotropy, quenching efficiency, and luminescence energy transfer. To achieve selective (bio)molecular recognition based on these fluorescence phenomena, various fluorescent elements such as small organic molecules, enzymes, antibodies, and oligonucleotides have been designed and synthesized over the past decades. This review describes the immense variety of fluorescent probes that have been designed for the recognitions of ions, small and large molecules, and their biological applications in terms of intracellular fluorescent imaging techniques.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus