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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Residual activity of phosphatases and esterases enzymes after 12 h exposure to a couple of organic pollutant and heavy metal ion such as (A) (triazine + Cd2+) and (B) (triazine + Hg2+). Reproduced from [143] with permissions.
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biosensors-05-00241-f022: Residual activity of phosphatases and esterases enzymes after 12 h exposure to a couple of organic pollutant and heavy metal ion such as (A) (triazine + Cd2+) and (B) (triazine + Hg2+). Reproduced from [143] with permissions.

Mentions: Chouteau et al. [141] described interdigitated conductimetric electrodes onto which the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris is immobilized. This microalgae contain alkaline phosphatase which locally produces phosphate ions, modifying the local ionic conductivity. Alkaline phosphatase is known to be inhibited by heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Zn2+, with a LoD of ca. 10 ppb for a 30 min long exposure. A similar sensor was described later by the same research team [142] where the microalgae were immobilized on the interdigitated area through self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiol. Very recently, using similar interdigitated electrodes, Tekaya et al. [143] described a bi-enzymatic biosensor made by immobilizing Arthrospira platensis cells and using impedance spectroscopy to characterize cells’ activity. Phosphatase and esterase activities were inhibited, respectively, by heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Hg2+, and by selected pesticides, with extremely low LoD of ca. 10−20 M. Complex matrixes such as a municipal wastewater were used to demonstrate its pertinence (Figure 22).


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Residual activity of phosphatases and esterases enzymes after 12 h exposure to a couple of organic pollutant and heavy metal ion such as (A) (triazine + Cd2+) and (B) (triazine + Hg2+). Reproduced from [143] with permissions.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f022: Residual activity of phosphatases and esterases enzymes after 12 h exposure to a couple of organic pollutant and heavy metal ion such as (A) (triazine + Cd2+) and (B) (triazine + Hg2+). Reproduced from [143] with permissions.
Mentions: Chouteau et al. [141] described interdigitated conductimetric electrodes onto which the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris is immobilized. This microalgae contain alkaline phosphatase which locally produces phosphate ions, modifying the local ionic conductivity. Alkaline phosphatase is known to be inhibited by heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Zn2+, with a LoD of ca. 10 ppb for a 30 min long exposure. A similar sensor was described later by the same research team [142] where the microalgae were immobilized on the interdigitated area through self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiol. Very recently, using similar interdigitated electrodes, Tekaya et al. [143] described a bi-enzymatic biosensor made by immobilizing Arthrospira platensis cells and using impedance spectroscopy to characterize cells’ activity. Phosphatase and esterase activities were inhibited, respectively, by heavy metals such as Cd2+ and Hg2+, and by selected pesticides, with extremely low LoD of ca. 10−20 M. Complex matrixes such as a municipal wastewater were used to demonstrate its pertinence (Figure 22).

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus