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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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(A) Scheme of the procedure for fabricating the peptide modified electrode; (B) SEM images of porous gold (a and b) and PTAA-covered porous gold (c and d) layers at different magnifications; (D) SWVs with Pb2+ concentration from 1 nM–10 mM; (D) Calibration curve. Reprinted from [126] with permission from Elsevier.
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biosensors-05-00241-f017: (A) Scheme of the procedure for fabricating the peptide modified electrode; (B) SEM images of porous gold (a and b) and PTAA-covered porous gold (c and d) layers at different magnifications; (D) SWVs with Pb2+ concentration from 1 nM–10 mM; (D) Calibration curve. Reprinted from [126] with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Peptides and amino acids have been studied for a long time as recognition elements for heavy metal ion detection, in particular for electrochemical sensors [124]. The 20 major amino acids are: alanine (A), Arginine (R), asparagine (N), aspartic acid (D), cysteine (C), glutamic acid (E), glutamine (Q), glycine (G), histidine (H), isoleucine (I), leucine (L), lysine (K), methionine (M), phenylalanine (F), proline (P), serine (S), threonine (T), tryptophan (W), tyrosine (Y) and valine (V). Recent articles reported innovative devices or approaches. For instance, Viguier et al. [125] described nanofibrils of four octapeptides (NSGAITIG, NCGAITIG, CNGAITIG, CSGAITIG) having self-assembling properties, which demonstrated recognition capabilities for copper ions. The authors claimed a LoD of ca. 20 μM using cyclic voltammetry, but did not describe the mechanisms involved. Recently, a heptapeptide (TNTLSNN) was identified to selectively bind Pb2+ and subsequently immobilized on top of a nanoporous gold electrode [126] through electrodeposition of poly(thiopheneacetic acid) followed by covalent coupling via amide linkage (Figure 17A). After preconcentration by the peptide, Pb2+ was detected using ASV, with a LoD of ca. 1 nM (Figure 17D).


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

(A) Scheme of the procedure for fabricating the peptide modified electrode; (B) SEM images of porous gold (a and b) and PTAA-covered porous gold (c and d) layers at different magnifications; (D) SWVs with Pb2+ concentration from 1 nM–10 mM; (D) Calibration curve. Reprinted from [126] with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f017: (A) Scheme of the procedure for fabricating the peptide modified electrode; (B) SEM images of porous gold (a and b) and PTAA-covered porous gold (c and d) layers at different magnifications; (D) SWVs with Pb2+ concentration from 1 nM–10 mM; (D) Calibration curve. Reprinted from [126] with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Peptides and amino acids have been studied for a long time as recognition elements for heavy metal ion detection, in particular for electrochemical sensors [124]. The 20 major amino acids are: alanine (A), Arginine (R), asparagine (N), aspartic acid (D), cysteine (C), glutamic acid (E), glutamine (Q), glycine (G), histidine (H), isoleucine (I), leucine (L), lysine (K), methionine (M), phenylalanine (F), proline (P), serine (S), threonine (T), tryptophan (W), tyrosine (Y) and valine (V). Recent articles reported innovative devices or approaches. For instance, Viguier et al. [125] described nanofibrils of four octapeptides (NSGAITIG, NCGAITIG, CNGAITIG, CSGAITIG) having self-assembling properties, which demonstrated recognition capabilities for copper ions. The authors claimed a LoD of ca. 20 μM using cyclic voltammetry, but did not describe the mechanisms involved. Recently, a heptapeptide (TNTLSNN) was identified to selectively bind Pb2+ and subsequently immobilized on top of a nanoporous gold electrode [126] through electrodeposition of poly(thiopheneacetic acid) followed by covalent coupling via amide linkage (Figure 17A). After preconcentration by the peptide, Pb2+ was detected using ASV, with a LoD of ca. 1 nM (Figure 17D).

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH