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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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(A) 5-channel device with (1) sensitive Si–SiO2–Si3N4 sensors, (2) counter electrode, (4) enzymes, (5) sealing, (6) PMMA body, flow input (7) and output (8); (B) Residual activities for urease, BChE and GOD enzymes, respectively, after exposure to selected heavy metal ions at increasing concentrations. Reprinted from [103] with permission from Elsevier.
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biosensors-05-00241-f013: (A) 5-channel device with (1) sensitive Si–SiO2–Si3N4 sensors, (2) counter electrode, (4) enzymes, (5) sealing, (6) PMMA body, flow input (7) and output (8); (B) Residual activities for urease, BChE and GOD enzymes, respectively, after exposure to selected heavy metal ions at increasing concentrations. Reprinted from [103] with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: An excellent example of enzymes for HMs detection was given by Kukla in 1999 [103]. The authors developed a multi-enzyme electrochemical sensor array based on capacitance measurements, illustrated on Figure 13A. Selected enzymes (cholinesterase-BChE, urease-Ur or glucose oxidase-GOD) were immobilized on the array of electrodes, in order to quantify a large number of heavy metal ions among a mixture of these ions, simultaneously. An example of 3D-curves obtained from a three-enzyme device is given on Figure 13B.


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

(A) 5-channel device with (1) sensitive Si–SiO2–Si3N4 sensors, (2) counter electrode, (4) enzymes, (5) sealing, (6) PMMA body, flow input (7) and output (8); (B) Residual activities for urease, BChE and GOD enzymes, respectively, after exposure to selected heavy metal ions at increasing concentrations. Reprinted from [103] with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f013: (A) 5-channel device with (1) sensitive Si–SiO2–Si3N4 sensors, (2) counter electrode, (4) enzymes, (5) sealing, (6) PMMA body, flow input (7) and output (8); (B) Residual activities for urease, BChE and GOD enzymes, respectively, after exposure to selected heavy metal ions at increasing concentrations. Reprinted from [103] with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: An excellent example of enzymes for HMs detection was given by Kukla in 1999 [103]. The authors developed a multi-enzyme electrochemical sensor array based on capacitance measurements, illustrated on Figure 13A. Selected enzymes (cholinesterase-BChE, urease-Ur or glucose oxidase-GOD) were immobilized on the array of electrodes, in order to quantify a large number of heavy metal ions among a mixture of these ions, simultaneously. An example of 3D-curves obtained from a three-enzyme device is given on Figure 13B.

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus