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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Processes of an enzyme for (A) a reversible inactivation or (B) an irreversible inactivation. E, enzyme; S, free substrate; P, product; E-S, enzyme-substrate complex; E-Inh, enzyme inhibitor complex; E-S-Inh, ternary complex containing enzyme-substrate inhibitor; KI and Ki, equilibrium dissociation constants of the E-S-Inh complex and the E-Inh complex, respectively. Reproduced from [102] under Creative Commons Attribution License.
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biosensors-05-00241-f012: Processes of an enzyme for (A) a reversible inactivation or (B) an irreversible inactivation. E, enzyme; S, free substrate; P, product; E-S, enzyme-substrate complex; E-Inh, enzyme inhibitor complex; E-S-Inh, ternary complex containing enzyme-substrate inhibitor; KI and Ki, equilibrium dissociation constants of the E-S-Inh complex and the E-Inh complex, respectively. Reproduced from [102] under Creative Commons Attribution License.

Mentions: Several enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase are extremely sensitive to a large number of heavy metals, which act as inhibitors. Enzyme inhibition may be of reversible or irreversible nature (see Figure 12 for the general inhibition mechanisms). For more details, the reader may refer to the review by Turdean [102].


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Processes of an enzyme for (A) a reversible inactivation or (B) an irreversible inactivation. E, enzyme; S, free substrate; P, product; E-S, enzyme-substrate complex; E-Inh, enzyme inhibitor complex; E-S-Inh, ternary complex containing enzyme-substrate inhibitor; KI and Ki, equilibrium dissociation constants of the E-S-Inh complex and the E-Inh complex, respectively. Reproduced from [102] under Creative Commons Attribution License.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f012: Processes of an enzyme for (A) a reversible inactivation or (B) an irreversible inactivation. E, enzyme; S, free substrate; P, product; E-S, enzyme-substrate complex; E-Inh, enzyme inhibitor complex; E-S-Inh, ternary complex containing enzyme-substrate inhibitor; KI and Ki, equilibrium dissociation constants of the E-S-Inh complex and the E-Inh complex, respectively. Reproduced from [102] under Creative Commons Attribution License.
Mentions: Several enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase are extremely sensitive to a large number of heavy metals, which act as inhibitors. Enzyme inhibition may be of reversible or irreversible nature (see Figure 12 for the general inhibition mechanisms). For more details, the reader may refer to the review by Turdean [102].

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus