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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Schematic illustration of the procedures for preparing the Bi/Nafion/OPPy-MES/GCE for ASV analysis of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions (not to scale). Reprinted from [90] with permission from Elsevier.
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biosensors-05-00241-f008: Schematic illustration of the procedures for preparing the Bi/Nafion/OPPy-MES/GCE for ASV analysis of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions (not to scale). Reprinted from [90] with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Copolymerization is also a simple way to functionalize CPs. For example, Somerset et al. showed that the presence of Hg2+ can be determined with a polyaniline-methylene blue (PANi-MB) copolymer [86]. The electrodes were prepared by electropolymerization of a mixture of aniline and methylene blue. A linear calibration curve was found in the range of 10−8 M to 10−5 M Hg2+ using ASV. Copolymerization of ANi with 2,2'-dithiodianiline (DTDA) provided similar results [87]. In the case of Cd2+ and Pb2+, Philips et al. [88] developed a new copolymer poly(diphenylamine-co-2-aminobenzonitrile) and showed that it is efficient for detection of these ions down to 1.26 ppm and 0.26 ppm, respectively (Figure 7B). Copolymers of aniline and imidazole were also reported to present a high sensitivity toward Pb2+ (2 µg·L−1) [89]. In another interesting example, authors described an electrode modified with overoxidized 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES)-tethered polypyrrole, Nafion and bismuth, by analogy with bismuth thin-film electrodes described in Section 3.4 of this review [90]. SWASV was applied to detect Pb2+ and Cd2+ with LoDs of 0.03 µg·L−1 and 0.04 µg·L−1, respectively (Figure 8).


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic illustration of the procedures for preparing the Bi/Nafion/OPPy-MES/GCE for ASV analysis of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions (not to scale). Reprinted from [90] with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f008: Schematic illustration of the procedures for preparing the Bi/Nafion/OPPy-MES/GCE for ASV analysis of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions (not to scale). Reprinted from [90] with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Copolymerization is also a simple way to functionalize CPs. For example, Somerset et al. showed that the presence of Hg2+ can be determined with a polyaniline-methylene blue (PANi-MB) copolymer [86]. The electrodes were prepared by electropolymerization of a mixture of aniline and methylene blue. A linear calibration curve was found in the range of 10−8 M to 10−5 M Hg2+ using ASV. Copolymerization of ANi with 2,2'-dithiodianiline (DTDA) provided similar results [87]. In the case of Cd2+ and Pb2+, Philips et al. [88] developed a new copolymer poly(diphenylamine-co-2-aminobenzonitrile) and showed that it is efficient for detection of these ions down to 1.26 ppm and 0.26 ppm, respectively (Figure 7B). Copolymers of aniline and imidazole were also reported to present a high sensitivity toward Pb2+ (2 µg·L−1) [89]. In another interesting example, authors described an electrode modified with overoxidized 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES)-tethered polypyrrole, Nafion and bismuth, by analogy with bismuth thin-film electrodes described in Section 3.4 of this review [90]. SWASV was applied to detect Pb2+ and Cd2+ with LoDs of 0.03 µg·L−1 and 0.04 µg·L−1, respectively (Figure 8).

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH