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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Cyclic voltammograms for 1 mM Pb2+ in 0.05 mol·L−1 HCl on: (a) PEDOT: PSS-modified electrode and (b) bare carbon electrode, compared with (c) lead-free electrolyte on PEDOT:PSS-modified electrode. Potentials vs. Ag/AgCl. Scan rate 10 mV·s−1. Reprinted from [75], with permission from Elsevier.
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biosensors-05-00241-f006: Cyclic voltammograms for 1 mM Pb2+ in 0.05 mol·L−1 HCl on: (a) PEDOT: PSS-modified electrode and (b) bare carbon electrode, compared with (c) lead-free electrolyte on PEDOT:PSS-modified electrode. Potentials vs. Ag/AgCl. Scan rate 10 mV·s−1. Reprinted from [75], with permission from Elsevier.

Mentions: Unmodified CP films may display intrinsic affinity to metal ions. For example, it was demonstrated that silver could be entrapped in polypyrrole film [70,71]. Polythiophene and its derivatives also show affinity with HMs. Zejli et al. electropolymerized poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) on gold or sonogel electrodes [72,73]. Mercury(II) was preconcentrated from the solution into the P3MT-modified electrode at open-circuit potential, then differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to reoxidize Hg0; a linear dependence with mercury(II) concentration was obtained in the range 10−8–4 × 10−6 mol·L−1. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was also used towards lead ions detection [74] (Figure 6).


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Cyclic voltammograms for 1 mM Pb2+ in 0.05 mol·L−1 HCl on: (a) PEDOT: PSS-modified electrode and (b) bare carbon electrode, compared with (c) lead-free electrolyte on PEDOT:PSS-modified electrode. Potentials vs. Ag/AgCl. Scan rate 10 mV·s−1. Reprinted from [75], with permission from Elsevier.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f006: Cyclic voltammograms for 1 mM Pb2+ in 0.05 mol·L−1 HCl on: (a) PEDOT: PSS-modified electrode and (b) bare carbon electrode, compared with (c) lead-free electrolyte on PEDOT:PSS-modified electrode. Potentials vs. Ag/AgCl. Scan rate 10 mV·s−1. Reprinted from [75], with permission from Elsevier.
Mentions: Unmodified CP films may display intrinsic affinity to metal ions. For example, it was demonstrated that silver could be entrapped in polypyrrole film [70,71]. Polythiophene and its derivatives also show affinity with HMs. Zejli et al. electropolymerized poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MT) on gold or sonogel electrodes [72,73]. Mercury(II) was preconcentrated from the solution into the P3MT-modified electrode at open-circuit potential, then differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to reoxidize Hg0; a linear dependence with mercury(II) concentration was obtained in the range 10−8–4 × 10−6 mol·L−1. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) was also used towards lead ions detection [74] (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH