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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Anodic stripping voltammograms of cadmium(II) and lead(II) at in situ prepared antimony film (thick line), bismuth film (thin line) and mercury film (dashed line) electrodes. Solution: 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2) containing 50 ppb cadmium(II) and lead(II) together with 1 mg·L−1 antimony(III), bismuth(III), or mercury(II). Reprinted with permission from [44]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
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biosensors-05-00241-f004: Anodic stripping voltammograms of cadmium(II) and lead(II) at in situ prepared antimony film (thick line), bismuth film (thin line) and mercury film (dashed line) electrodes. Solution: 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2) containing 50 ppb cadmium(II) and lead(II) together with 1 mg·L−1 antimony(III), bismuth(III), or mercury(II). Reprinted with permission from [44]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.

Mentions: The use of antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) for electrochemical stripping analysis was first reported by Hocevar et al. in 2007 [44] (Figure 4) although the fact that the use of antimony as electrode material was known since 1923 for pH measurements [45]. As for bismuth, two methods of plating are commonly used: ex situ and in situ plating. SbFEs exhibit a very similar electrochemical stripping behavior to BFEs, with almost the same sensitivity towards Pb(II) and a slightly higher sensitivity towards Cd(II). With respect to the MFEs, both BFEs and SbFEs provide an improved sensitivity towards cadmium whereas it is the opposite for lead. Also, compared to BFEs, SbFEs provides a more favorable hydrogen evolution which is comparable to MFEs. SbFEs were notably used for detection of Pb, Cd and Zn in tap and river water [46] and for the detection of Ni using complexation with dimethylglyoxime [47,48].


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Anodic stripping voltammograms of cadmium(II) and lead(II) at in situ prepared antimony film (thick line), bismuth film (thin line) and mercury film (dashed line) electrodes. Solution: 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2) containing 50 ppb cadmium(II) and lead(II) together with 1 mg·L−1 antimony(III), bismuth(III), or mercury(II). Reprinted with permission from [44]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f004: Anodic stripping voltammograms of cadmium(II) and lead(II) at in situ prepared antimony film (thick line), bismuth film (thin line) and mercury film (dashed line) electrodes. Solution: 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2) containing 50 ppb cadmium(II) and lead(II) together with 1 mg·L−1 antimony(III), bismuth(III), or mercury(II). Reprinted with permission from [44]. Copyright 2007 American Chemical Society.
Mentions: The use of antimony film electrodes (SbFEs) for electrochemical stripping analysis was first reported by Hocevar et al. in 2007 [44] (Figure 4) although the fact that the use of antimony as electrode material was known since 1923 for pH measurements [45]. As for bismuth, two methods of plating are commonly used: ex situ and in situ plating. SbFEs exhibit a very similar electrochemical stripping behavior to BFEs, with almost the same sensitivity towards Pb(II) and a slightly higher sensitivity towards Cd(II). With respect to the MFEs, both BFEs and SbFEs provide an improved sensitivity towards cadmium whereas it is the opposite for lead. Also, compared to BFEs, SbFEs provides a more favorable hydrogen evolution which is comparable to MFEs. SbFEs were notably used for detection of Pb, Cd and Zn in tap and river water [46] and for the detection of Ni using complexation with dimethylglyoxime [47,48].

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH