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Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

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Schematic illustrations of gold nanoelectrode ensembles (GNEEs) dedicated to the detection of arsenic using a colloidal chemical approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode. Reprinted with permission from [27]. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society.
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biosensors-05-00241-f002: Schematic illustrations of gold nanoelectrode ensembles (GNEEs) dedicated to the detection of arsenic using a colloidal chemical approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode. Reprinted with permission from [27]. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society.

Mentions: Nanostructured gold electrodes have been shown to improve LoD. In particular, several papers described the successful use of gold nanoparticles-modified electrodes. Compton’s group developed a gold-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode for arsenic(III) detection, with a LoD of 0.0096 ppb using LSV [26]. Jena et al. developed a highly sensitive platform based on gold nanoelectrodes ensembles (GNEEs). GNEEs were grown by colloidal approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode (Figure 2). Using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), they achieved simultaneous detection of arsenic(III) and Hg(II) in presence of Cu(II) with a LoD of 0.02 ppb [27]. Detection of Cr(VI) was also achieved with the same platform with a LoD of 0.1 ppb [28]. Mordegan et al. developed GNEEs using a polycarbonate membrane as template for a better control of the nanoelectrodes density. A LoD of 5 ppt was achieved for arsenic detection [29].


Modified electrodes used for electrochemical detection of metal ions in environmental analysis.

March G, Nguyen TD, Piro B - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Schematic illustrations of gold nanoelectrode ensembles (GNEEs) dedicated to the detection of arsenic using a colloidal chemical approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode. Reprinted with permission from [27]. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493548&req=5

biosensors-05-00241-f002: Schematic illustrations of gold nanoelectrode ensembles (GNEEs) dedicated to the detection of arsenic using a colloidal chemical approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode. Reprinted with permission from [27]. Copyright 2008 American Chemical Society.
Mentions: Nanostructured gold electrodes have been shown to improve LoD. In particular, several papers described the successful use of gold nanoparticles-modified electrodes. Compton’s group developed a gold-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode for arsenic(III) detection, with a LoD of 0.0096 ppb using LSV [26]. Jena et al. developed a highly sensitive platform based on gold nanoelectrodes ensembles (GNEEs). GNEEs were grown by colloidal approach on thiol-functionalized 3D silicate network preassembled on polycrystalline gold electrode (Figure 2). Using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV), they achieved simultaneous detection of arsenic(III) and Hg(II) in presence of Cu(II) with a LoD of 0.02 ppb [27]. Detection of Cr(VI) was also achieved with the same platform with a LoD of 0.1 ppb [28]. Mordegan et al. developed GNEEs using a polycarbonate membrane as template for a better control of the nanoelectrodes density. A LoD of 5 ppt was achieved for arsenic detection [29].

Bottom Line: Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment.The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond.Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Klearia, route de Nozay, Marcoussis 91460, France. gregory.march@free.fr.

ABSTRACT
Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and regulations are becoming stricter. Many efforts have been made to develop sensors for monitoring heavy metals in the environment. This review aims at presenting the different label-free strategies used to develop electrochemical sensors for the detection of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic etc. The first part of this review will be dedicated to stripping voltammetry techniques, on unmodified electrodes (mercury, bismuth or noble metals in the bulk form), or electrodes modified at their surface by nanoparticles, nanostructures (CNT, graphene) or other innovative materials such as boron-doped diamond. The second part will be dedicated to chemically modified electrodes especially those with conducting polymers. The last part of this review will focus on bio-modified electrodes. Special attention will be paid to strategies using biomolecules (DNA, peptide or proteins), enzymes or whole cells.

Show MeSH