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Experimental Validation of the Sensitivity of Waveguide Grating Based Refractometric (Bio)sensors.

Gartmann TE, Kehl F - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that the theoretical foundations of the sensitivity of waveguide grating based (bio)sensors are well-known, understood and their implications anticipated by the scientific community since several decades, to our knowledge, no prior publication has experimentally confirmed waveguide sensitivity for multiple film thicknesses, wavelengths and polarization of the propagating light.The effective refractive indices and the corresponding sensitivity were determined via the sensors' coupling angles at different cover refractive indices for transverse electric as well as transverse magnetic polarized illumination at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared.The theoretical sensitivity was calculated by solving the mode equation for a three layer waveguide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSEM Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Bahnhofstrasse 1, Landquart CH-7302, Switzerland. thomas.gartmann@csem.ch.

ABSTRACT
Despite the fact that the theoretical foundations of the sensitivity of waveguide grating based (bio)sensors are well-known, understood and their implications anticipated by the scientific community since several decades, to our knowledge, no prior publication has experimentally confirmed waveguide sensitivity for multiple film thicknesses, wavelengths and polarization of the propagating light. In this paper, the bulk refractive index sensitivity versus waveguide thickness of said refractometric sensors is experimentally determined and compared with predictions based on established theory. The effective refractive indices and the corresponding sensitivity were determined via the sensors' coupling angles at different cover refractive indices for transverse electric as well as transverse magnetic polarized illumination at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared. The theoretical sensitivity was calculated by solving the mode equation for a three layer waveguide.

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Measured (marks) and calculated sensitivities (lines) for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarization at the four investigated wavelengths of the incident light. All error bars (standard deviations of all measured values) were plotted but some are barely discernible due to their small value.
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biosensors-05-00187-f007: Measured (marks) and calculated sensitivities (lines) for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarization at the four investigated wavelengths of the incident light. All error bars (standard deviations of all measured values) were plotted but some are barely discernible due to their small value.

Mentions: Both measured and calculated sensitivities for the investigated waveguide grating based (bio)sensor are displayed in Figure 7 for all measured waveguide thicknesses, wavelengths and polarizations of the incident light. There is a good agreement between the measured data and the numerical simulations. To quantitatively express the agreement, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the measured sensitivities from the simulated ones was calculated for every displayed graph in Figure 7. The RMSD represents the deviation of the simulated values from the measured ones, or vice versa. On average, the RMSD was 0.006 ± 0.003, which is equal to the average standard deviation of the measured sensitivities. Thus, the accuracy is most probably limited by the achievable resolution of the current measurement setup. Additionally, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (PPMCC) were calculated for all the graphs in Figure 7. The PPMCC were ≥0.994, except for λ = 845.1 ± 0.2 nm and TM polarization with PPMCCs of 0.973 (Δnc1) and 0.984 (Δnc2), signifying that the measured and simulated sensitivities are almost perfectly correlated. Therefore, it can be concluded, that the good agreement of measurements and simulations is supported by the calculated RMSD’s and PPMCC’s.


Experimental Validation of the Sensitivity of Waveguide Grating Based Refractometric (Bio)sensors.

Gartmann TE, Kehl F - Biosensors (Basel) (2015)

Measured (marks) and calculated sensitivities (lines) for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarization at the four investigated wavelengths of the incident light. All error bars (standard deviations of all measured values) were plotted but some are barely discernible due to their small value.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493545&req=5

biosensors-05-00187-f007: Measured (marks) and calculated sensitivities (lines) for transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarization at the four investigated wavelengths of the incident light. All error bars (standard deviations of all measured values) were plotted but some are barely discernible due to their small value.
Mentions: Both measured and calculated sensitivities for the investigated waveguide grating based (bio)sensor are displayed in Figure 7 for all measured waveguide thicknesses, wavelengths and polarizations of the incident light. There is a good agreement between the measured data and the numerical simulations. To quantitatively express the agreement, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of the measured sensitivities from the simulated ones was calculated for every displayed graph in Figure 7. The RMSD represents the deviation of the simulated values from the measured ones, or vice versa. On average, the RMSD was 0.006 ± 0.003, which is equal to the average standard deviation of the measured sensitivities. Thus, the accuracy is most probably limited by the achievable resolution of the current measurement setup. Additionally, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients (PPMCC) were calculated for all the graphs in Figure 7. The PPMCC were ≥0.994, except for λ = 845.1 ± 0.2 nm and TM polarization with PPMCCs of 0.973 (Δnc1) and 0.984 (Δnc2), signifying that the measured and simulated sensitivities are almost perfectly correlated. Therefore, it can be concluded, that the good agreement of measurements and simulations is supported by the calculated RMSD’s and PPMCC’s.

Bottom Line: Despite the fact that the theoretical foundations of the sensitivity of waveguide grating based (bio)sensors are well-known, understood and their implications anticipated by the scientific community since several decades, to our knowledge, no prior publication has experimentally confirmed waveguide sensitivity for multiple film thicknesses, wavelengths and polarization of the propagating light.The effective refractive indices and the corresponding sensitivity were determined via the sensors' coupling angles at different cover refractive indices for transverse electric as well as transverse magnetic polarized illumination at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared.The theoretical sensitivity was calculated by solving the mode equation for a three layer waveguide.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSEM Centre Suisse d'Electronique et de Microtechnique SA, Bahnhofstrasse 1, Landquart CH-7302, Switzerland. thomas.gartmann@csem.ch.

ABSTRACT
Despite the fact that the theoretical foundations of the sensitivity of waveguide grating based (bio)sensors are well-known, understood and their implications anticipated by the scientific community since several decades, to our knowledge, no prior publication has experimentally confirmed waveguide sensitivity for multiple film thicknesses, wavelengths and polarization of the propagating light. In this paper, the bulk refractive index sensitivity versus waveguide thickness of said refractometric sensors is experimentally determined and compared with predictions based on established theory. The effective refractive indices and the corresponding sensitivity were determined via the sensors' coupling angles at different cover refractive indices for transverse electric as well as transverse magnetic polarized illumination at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared. The theoretical sensitivity was calculated by solving the mode equation for a three layer waveguide.

Show MeSH