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Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.


Conceptual illustration of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The first step in developing a BERA is the electroinsertion of antibodies against a specific pathogen (or other entity to be detected) into a biological membrane, often in living cells (top). Once the cells are membrane-engineered with a surface-displayed antibody, a sample can be measured for the presence of a pathogen by encapsulating the engineered cell into a gel bead (bottom, right). Upon ligand binding to the antibodies, the membrane structure is sufficiently altered to change calcium flux and cause a measurable difference in the membrane potential, which can be detected with high sensitivity.
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jfb-06-00454-f005: Conceptual illustration of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The first step in developing a BERA is the electroinsertion of antibodies against a specific pathogen (or other entity to be detected) into a biological membrane, often in living cells (top). Once the cells are membrane-engineered with a surface-displayed antibody, a sample can be measured for the presence of a pathogen by encapsulating the engineered cell into a gel bead (bottom, right). Upon ligand binding to the antibodies, the membrane structure is sufficiently altered to change calcium flux and cause a measurable difference in the membrane potential, which can be detected with high sensitivity.

Mentions: A fundamental requirement for using cells as biosensors is an ability to convert a chemical, biochemical, or biological signal into a “physical” signal such as an electrical signal or a light-based readout. A novel biosensory method was reported in 2001 for detecting chemical and biological molecules by monitoring the electrophysiological interactions of the compounds with immobilized cells. This method was capable of detecting a range of targets including hepatitis C virus in human blood, plant viruses, and the herbicide glyphosate in aqueous solutions rapidly (in 3–5 min) and sensitively (at <100 pg/mL) [113]. This type of electrically transducing cell-based biosensor, known as a bioelectric recognition assay (BERA, illustrated conceptually in Figure 5), utilizes antibodies in mammalian cell membranes to achieve specificity. Insertion of the antibodies can be achieved through electroporation, a process in which an electrical pulse causes an opening of the pores on the cell membrane or osmotic insertion [114] to introduce antibodies onto the surface of a cell resulting in a measurable change in the cell’s membrane potential in response to changes in ligand binding of inserted antibodies [115].


Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Conceptual illustration of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The first step in developing a BERA is the electroinsertion of antibodies against a specific pathogen (or other entity to be detected) into a biological membrane, often in living cells (top). Once the cells are membrane-engineered with a surface-displayed antibody, a sample can be measured for the presence of a pathogen by encapsulating the engineered cell into a gel bead (bottom, right). Upon ligand binding to the antibodies, the membrane structure is sufficiently altered to change calcium flux and cause a measurable difference in the membrane potential, which can be detected with high sensitivity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493524&req=5

jfb-06-00454-f005: Conceptual illustration of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The first step in developing a BERA is the electroinsertion of antibodies against a specific pathogen (or other entity to be detected) into a biological membrane, often in living cells (top). Once the cells are membrane-engineered with a surface-displayed antibody, a sample can be measured for the presence of a pathogen by encapsulating the engineered cell into a gel bead (bottom, right). Upon ligand binding to the antibodies, the membrane structure is sufficiently altered to change calcium flux and cause a measurable difference in the membrane potential, which can be detected with high sensitivity.
Mentions: A fundamental requirement for using cells as biosensors is an ability to convert a chemical, biochemical, or biological signal into a “physical” signal such as an electrical signal or a light-based readout. A novel biosensory method was reported in 2001 for detecting chemical and biological molecules by monitoring the electrophysiological interactions of the compounds with immobilized cells. This method was capable of detecting a range of targets including hepatitis C virus in human blood, plant viruses, and the herbicide glyphosate in aqueous solutions rapidly (in 3–5 min) and sensitively (at <100 pg/mL) [113]. This type of electrically transducing cell-based biosensor, known as a bioelectric recognition assay (BERA, illustrated conceptually in Figure 5), utilizes antibodies in mammalian cell membranes to achieve specificity. Insertion of the antibodies can be achieved through electroporation, a process in which an electrical pulse causes an opening of the pores on the cell membrane or osmotic insertion [114] to introduce antibodies onto the surface of a cell resulting in a measurable change in the cell’s membrane potential in response to changes in ligand binding of inserted antibodies [115].

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.