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Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.


Overview of strategies for biofuel synthesis where membrane engineering has a central role.
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jfb-06-00454-f004: Overview of strategies for biofuel synthesis where membrane engineering has a central role.

Mentions: Based on the vast amounts of solar energy available (as outlined below in Section 4.1), biofuel production is another active area of research where membrane engineering in living cells is fundamentally important. In the past, much of the research in this area has focused on altering the internal enzymatic machinery to optimize product formation; these efforts continue today as exemplified by the strategy described in Section 4.2 of minimizing wasteful “protective” mechanisms in host organisms used for biofuels production. It is becoming increasingly evident, that membrane surface engineering also can play a role in improving the efficiency of biofuel synthesis as well as recovery and purification (Figure 4). One strategy to improve biofuel production is to increase the export of intracellularly produced biofuel products out of the host cell, which involves engineering channels or transporters into surface membranes (Section 4.3). An alternative strategy involves moving biofuel production from the intracellular environment by installing enzymes capable of producing biofuels onto the surface of cells (Section 4.4), thereby bypassing the need for extracellular transport at all. Finally, the use of biomass to generate electricity directly is covered in Section 4.5 and emerging efforts to reproduce photosynthesis in cell-free systems is outlined in Section 4.6.


Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Overview of strategies for biofuel synthesis where membrane engineering has a central role.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493524&req=5

jfb-06-00454-f004: Overview of strategies for biofuel synthesis where membrane engineering has a central role.
Mentions: Based on the vast amounts of solar energy available (as outlined below in Section 4.1), biofuel production is another active area of research where membrane engineering in living cells is fundamentally important. In the past, much of the research in this area has focused on altering the internal enzymatic machinery to optimize product formation; these efforts continue today as exemplified by the strategy described in Section 4.2 of minimizing wasteful “protective” mechanisms in host organisms used for biofuels production. It is becoming increasingly evident, that membrane surface engineering also can play a role in improving the efficiency of biofuel synthesis as well as recovery and purification (Figure 4). One strategy to improve biofuel production is to increase the export of intracellularly produced biofuel products out of the host cell, which involves engineering channels or transporters into surface membranes (Section 4.3). An alternative strategy involves moving biofuel production from the intracellular environment by installing enzymes capable of producing biofuels onto the surface of cells (Section 4.4), thereby bypassing the need for extracellular transport at all. Finally, the use of biomass to generate electricity directly is covered in Section 4.5 and emerging efforts to reproduce photosynthesis in cell-free systems is outlined in Section 4.6.

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.