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Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.


Production of self-assembled polymersomes. Self-assembled polymersomes can be created utilizing microfluidic techniques to introduce a cocktail containing the machinery required for protein synthesis (inner layer, left) through a microchannel into an oil layer-containing polymer (middle layer). The nascently–formed spheres flow through the oil layer into an aqueous phase, forming polymersomes with the outer blue PEG-PLA shown on the left. Cell-free protein production takes place in these constructs; for example, as cited in the main text, the bacterial protein MreB (orange spring) can be produced after which it spontaneously diffuses and inserts into the polymersome membrane.
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jfb-06-00454-f002: Production of self-assembled polymersomes. Self-assembled polymersomes can be created utilizing microfluidic techniques to introduce a cocktail containing the machinery required for protein synthesis (inner layer, left) through a microchannel into an oil layer-containing polymer (middle layer). The nascently–formed spheres flow through the oil layer into an aqueous phase, forming polymersomes with the outer blue PEG-PLA shown on the left. Cell-free protein production takes place in these constructs; for example, as cited in the main text, the bacterial protein MreB (orange spring) can be produced after which it spontaneously diffuses and inserts into the polymersome membrane.

Mentions: A recent approach [44] for synthesizing membrane proteins in a polymersome utilizes microfluidic techniques to capture ribosomes, amino acids, DNA templates, and an enzyme mix to create a bioactive cocktail that contains the essential machinery that cells employ in protein synthesis. In the example illustrated in Figure 2, bacterial membrane protein MreB was expressed within a polymersome constructed of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA); the PLA homopolymer was added to increase the hydrophobicity of the polymersome membrane. By using this strategy, a proportion of MreB synthesized within the polymersome migrated and anchored into the polymer bilayer despite the absence of the elegant secretory apparatus found in eukaryotic cells due to interaction between a hydrophobic helical domain within the MreB protein and hydrophobic polymer membrane. In a second example [40], polybutadiene-polyethyleneoxide (PBD-PEO) polymersomes were constructed and claudin-2 (Cldn2), a membrane protein important in cell-cell interactions, was used as a model for insertion into the polymer bilayer. In this case, Cldn2 was synthesized extrinsically using a standard wheat germ protein expression kit, a common technique for cell-free protein expression [45]. By including the polymersome in the reaction mixture during Cldn2 expression, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed that Cldn2 spontaneously inserted into the polymersome.


Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Production of self-assembled polymersomes. Self-assembled polymersomes can be created utilizing microfluidic techniques to introduce a cocktail containing the machinery required for protein synthesis (inner layer, left) through a microchannel into an oil layer-containing polymer (middle layer). The nascently–formed spheres flow through the oil layer into an aqueous phase, forming polymersomes with the outer blue PEG-PLA shown on the left. Cell-free protein production takes place in these constructs; for example, as cited in the main text, the bacterial protein MreB (orange spring) can be produced after which it spontaneously diffuses and inserts into the polymersome membrane.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493524&req=5

jfb-06-00454-f002: Production of self-assembled polymersomes. Self-assembled polymersomes can be created utilizing microfluidic techniques to introduce a cocktail containing the machinery required for protein synthesis (inner layer, left) through a microchannel into an oil layer-containing polymer (middle layer). The nascently–formed spheres flow through the oil layer into an aqueous phase, forming polymersomes with the outer blue PEG-PLA shown on the left. Cell-free protein production takes place in these constructs; for example, as cited in the main text, the bacterial protein MreB (orange spring) can be produced after which it spontaneously diffuses and inserts into the polymersome membrane.
Mentions: A recent approach [44] for synthesizing membrane proteins in a polymersome utilizes microfluidic techniques to capture ribosomes, amino acids, DNA templates, and an enzyme mix to create a bioactive cocktail that contains the essential machinery that cells employ in protein synthesis. In the example illustrated in Figure 2, bacterial membrane protein MreB was expressed within a polymersome constructed of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA); the PLA homopolymer was added to increase the hydrophobicity of the polymersome membrane. By using this strategy, a proportion of MreB synthesized within the polymersome migrated and anchored into the polymer bilayer despite the absence of the elegant secretory apparatus found in eukaryotic cells due to interaction between a hydrophobic helical domain within the MreB protein and hydrophobic polymer membrane. In a second example [40], polybutadiene-polyethyleneoxide (PBD-PEO) polymersomes were constructed and claudin-2 (Cldn2), a membrane protein important in cell-cell interactions, was used as a model for insertion into the polymer bilayer. In this case, Cldn2 was synthesized extrinsically using a standard wheat germ protein expression kit, a common technique for cell-free protein expression [45]. By including the polymersome in the reaction mixture during Cldn2 expression, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) confirmed that Cldn2 spontaneously inserted into the polymersome.

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.