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Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.


Redirecting lipid metabolism to membrane biogenesis. When culture systems are supplemented with fatty acids, large portions are stored as DAG and TAG (left). Increased lipid metabolic flux can be diverted towards membrane biogenesis by deleting the PAH1 gene (right), inhibiting storage of fatty acids. Increased lipid flux towards membrane precursor biosynthesis leads to a larger total membrane surface area, provided a cell with an increased membrane capacity leading to higher yields for over-expressed membrane proteins.
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jfb-06-00454-f001: Redirecting lipid metabolism to membrane biogenesis. When culture systems are supplemented with fatty acids, large portions are stored as DAG and TAG (left). Increased lipid metabolic flux can be diverted towards membrane biogenesis by deleting the PAH1 gene (right), inhibiting storage of fatty acids. Increased lipid flux towards membrane precursor biosynthesis leads to a larger total membrane surface area, provided a cell with an increased membrane capacity leading to higher yields for over-expressed membrane proteins.

Mentions: Fatty acids are absorbed from culture media by eukaryotic cells and then stored in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm as triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE) [35]. If storage as TAG and SE is suppressed, flux of fatty acids and their metabolites into anabolic pathways and towards new membrane construction is promoted. In particular, PAH1, the gene that encodes phosphatidic acid phosphatase (Pah1p), acts as a gate keeper for partitioning flux of fatty acids into storage as TAG [36]. This gene has become a target for genetic knockdown in yeast because if PAH1 is deleted, diacylglycerol (DAG), and subsequently TAG, biosynthesis is disabled and metabolic flux in a cell is redistributed to produce excess membranes (Figure 1) that facilitate the overproduction of biologically active integral membrane proteins by providing an increased membrane surface area [37].


Cell Surface and Membrane Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Applications.

Saeui CT, Mathew MP, Liu L, Urias E, Yarema KJ - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Redirecting lipid metabolism to membrane biogenesis. When culture systems are supplemented with fatty acids, large portions are stored as DAG and TAG (left). Increased lipid metabolic flux can be diverted towards membrane biogenesis by deleting the PAH1 gene (right), inhibiting storage of fatty acids. Increased lipid flux towards membrane precursor biosynthesis leads to a larger total membrane surface area, provided a cell with an increased membrane capacity leading to higher yields for over-expressed membrane proteins.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493524&req=5

jfb-06-00454-f001: Redirecting lipid metabolism to membrane biogenesis. When culture systems are supplemented with fatty acids, large portions are stored as DAG and TAG (left). Increased lipid metabolic flux can be diverted towards membrane biogenesis by deleting the PAH1 gene (right), inhibiting storage of fatty acids. Increased lipid flux towards membrane precursor biosynthesis leads to a larger total membrane surface area, provided a cell with an increased membrane capacity leading to higher yields for over-expressed membrane proteins.
Mentions: Fatty acids are absorbed from culture media by eukaryotic cells and then stored in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm as triacylglycerols (TAG) and steryl esters (SE) [35]. If storage as TAG and SE is suppressed, flux of fatty acids and their metabolites into anabolic pathways and towards new membrane construction is promoted. In particular, PAH1, the gene that encodes phosphatidic acid phosphatase (Pah1p), acts as a gate keeper for partitioning flux of fatty acids into storage as TAG [36]. This gene has become a target for genetic knockdown in yeast because if PAH1 is deleted, diacylglycerol (DAG), and subsequently TAG, biosynthesis is disabled and metabolic flux in a cell is redistributed to produce excess membranes (Figure 1) that facilitate the overproduction of biologically active integral membrane proteins by providing an increased membrane surface area [37].

Bottom Line: To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility.This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples.The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Translational Tissue Engineering Center (TTEC), Johns Hopkins University, 400 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. chris.saeui@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Membranes constitute the interface between the basic unit of life-a single cell-and the outside environment and thus in many ways comprise the ultimate "functional biomaterial". To perform the many and often conflicting functions required in this role, for example to partition intracellular contents from the outside environment while maintaining rapid intake of nutrients and efflux of waste products, biological membranes have evolved tremendous complexity and versatility. This article describes how membranes, mainly in the context of living cells, are increasingly being manipulated for practical purposes with drug discovery, biofuels, and biosensors providing specific, illustrative examples. Attention is also given to biology-inspired, but completely synthetic, membrane-based technologies that are being enabled by emerging methods such as bio-3D printers. The diverse set of applications covered in this article are intended to illustrate how these versatile technologies-as they rapidly mature-hold tremendous promise to benefit human health in numerous ways ranging from the development of new medicines to sensitive and cost-effective environmental monitoring for pathogens and pollutants to replacing hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels.

No MeSH data available.