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Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

Pittaccio S, Garavaglia L, Ceriotti C, Passaretti F - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way.Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion.Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (CNR-IENI), C.so Promessi Sposi, 29-23900 Lecco, Italy. s.pittaccio@ieni.cnr.it.

ABSTRACT
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) A 3D-printed fully-functional prototype of a pseudoelastic sensorized orthosis; (b) example of recorded tracings for a healthy subject during a reach-forward task.
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jfb-06-00328-f005: (a) A 3D-printed fully-functional prototype of a pseudoelastic sensorized orthosis; (b) example of recorded tracings for a healthy subject during a reach-forward task.

Mentions: New devices were thus developed for producing a therapeutic action, but also for monitoring the evolution of the therapy and recording parameters linked to patient’s activity. The idea is that, taking advantage of the freedom of movement that the pseudoelastic hinges allow, spastic patients with some residual functional control of their affected arm, by virtue of the elbow extension gained through dynamic repositioning and thanks to the improved possibility to reach a larger number of objects and explore the space around them, will start using their limb more often for independent living. The pseudoelastic orthosis would thus be a manner of improving the neutral (average) position of the limb, while its compliance will make sure that flexion-extension will always be an available degree-of-freedom for the execution of motor tasks. On board the orthosis are mounted a potentiometer and a tri-axial accelerometer. Those sensors can continuously log the evolution of elbow joint angle and the accelerations of the proximal arm in time; the tracings are transferred via Bluetooth® technology and made available for real-time reading or off-line processing and viewing by clinicians. Trials are underway on a cohort of 10 post-stroke patients with spasticity in the arm flexors and residual mobility; the purpose of this study is to establish if data collected in the described manner during given standardized tasks can have value for clinically assessing any improvements in the use of the affected arm. Figure 5 shows a completely functional prototype of the sensorized pseudoelastic orthosis; it was designed with a geometry based on individual anatomic images from a healthy volunteer and constructed via 3D printing; the same figure also shows an example of the acquired signals for a standardized motor exercise (reach-forward).


Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

Pittaccio S, Garavaglia L, Ceriotti C, Passaretti F - J Funct Biomater (2015)

(a) A 3D-printed fully-functional prototype of a pseudoelastic sensorized orthosis; (b) example of recorded tracings for a healthy subject during a reach-forward task.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493515&req=5

jfb-06-00328-f005: (a) A 3D-printed fully-functional prototype of a pseudoelastic sensorized orthosis; (b) example of recorded tracings for a healthy subject during a reach-forward task.
Mentions: New devices were thus developed for producing a therapeutic action, but also for monitoring the evolution of the therapy and recording parameters linked to patient’s activity. The idea is that, taking advantage of the freedom of movement that the pseudoelastic hinges allow, spastic patients with some residual functional control of their affected arm, by virtue of the elbow extension gained through dynamic repositioning and thanks to the improved possibility to reach a larger number of objects and explore the space around them, will start using their limb more often for independent living. The pseudoelastic orthosis would thus be a manner of improving the neutral (average) position of the limb, while its compliance will make sure that flexion-extension will always be an available degree-of-freedom for the execution of motor tasks. On board the orthosis are mounted a potentiometer and a tri-axial accelerometer. Those sensors can continuously log the evolution of elbow joint angle and the accelerations of the proximal arm in time; the tracings are transferred via Bluetooth® technology and made available for real-time reading or off-line processing and viewing by clinicians. Trials are underway on a cohort of 10 post-stroke patients with spasticity in the arm flexors and residual mobility; the purpose of this study is to establish if data collected in the described manner during given standardized tasks can have value for clinically assessing any improvements in the use of the affected arm. Figure 5 shows a completely functional prototype of the sensorized pseudoelastic orthosis; it was designed with a geometry based on individual anatomic images from a healthy volunteer and constructed via 3D printing; the same figure also shows an example of the acquired signals for a standardized motor exercise (reach-forward).

Bottom Line: Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way.Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion.Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Research Council of Italy, Institute for Energetics and Interphases (CNR-IENI), C.so Promessi Sposi, 29-23900 Lecco, Italy. s.pittaccio@ieni.cnr.it.

ABSTRACT
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus