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Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Schena E - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing.In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages.Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrated Research, Università campus Bio-Medico, Alvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy. c.massaroni@unicampus.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

No MeSH data available.


(A) Textiles based on macrobending FOS embedding a standard single mode fiber (adapted from [57]); (B) Macrobending sensors for monitoring of abdominal movements (adapted from [57]); (C) Output of the OTDR sensors during the monitoring of abdominal movement (adapted from [57]).
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jfb-06-00204-f005: (A) Textiles based on macrobending FOS embedding a standard single mode fiber (adapted from [57]); (B) Macrobending sensors for monitoring of abdominal movements (adapted from [57]); (C) Output of the OTDR sensors during the monitoring of abdominal movement (adapted from [57]).

Mentions: Textiles based on these kinds of FOSs were proposed by the groups of research involved in the OFSETH project. In particular, they developed smart textiles based on macrobending FOS for the monitoring of respiratory rate on patients during MRI procedures [52,53]. The sensors are MR-compatible and the monitoring devices are located out of the magnetic resonance environment (see Figure 3). A standard single mode fiber was embedded within a textile as shown in Figure 5A. This macrobending sensor, due to the lower sensitivity than the FBG sensors, was used to monitor abdominal movements, because these movements are larger than thoracic ones (Figure 5B). The authors found large oscillations in the sensor’s output during the stretching of the textile, which could cause a wrong computation of the breathing rate. As a consequence, they designed a sensor with more periods of the U-shape on the textile bandage (Figure 5B). This solution allowed to substantially increase the sensitivity (e.g., for a textile elongation of 38%, the sensor response increased from less than 3 dB with a single-loop design to more than 28 dB with a 10 loops-design). Lastly they developed a sensor based on the optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) in polymer optical fiber (POF). Basically, the macrobending entails a change of the backscattering in POF that can be sensed by the technique of OTDR [56]. This solution allows measuring strain in different locations of a single fiber (distributed measurement). A respiratory simulator was employed to test the robustness of both the macrobending sensor and the sensor based on the OTDR technique. Both these sensors show low variations after cycles at 10 breaths per minute and elongation up to 3% and 5% for the OTDR sensor and for the macrobending one, respectively. These sensors were also tested on healthy volunteers.


Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Schena E - J Funct Biomater (2015)

(A) Textiles based on macrobending FOS embedding a standard single mode fiber (adapted from [57]); (B) Macrobending sensors for monitoring of abdominal movements (adapted from [57]); (C) Output of the OTDR sensors during the monitoring of abdominal movement (adapted from [57]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493508&req=5

jfb-06-00204-f005: (A) Textiles based on macrobending FOS embedding a standard single mode fiber (adapted from [57]); (B) Macrobending sensors for monitoring of abdominal movements (adapted from [57]); (C) Output of the OTDR sensors during the monitoring of abdominal movement (adapted from [57]).
Mentions: Textiles based on these kinds of FOSs were proposed by the groups of research involved in the OFSETH project. In particular, they developed smart textiles based on macrobending FOS for the monitoring of respiratory rate on patients during MRI procedures [52,53]. The sensors are MR-compatible and the monitoring devices are located out of the magnetic resonance environment (see Figure 3). A standard single mode fiber was embedded within a textile as shown in Figure 5A. This macrobending sensor, due to the lower sensitivity than the FBG sensors, was used to monitor abdominal movements, because these movements are larger than thoracic ones (Figure 5B). The authors found large oscillations in the sensor’s output during the stretching of the textile, which could cause a wrong computation of the breathing rate. As a consequence, they designed a sensor with more periods of the U-shape on the textile bandage (Figure 5B). This solution allowed to substantially increase the sensitivity (e.g., for a textile elongation of 38%, the sensor response increased from less than 3 dB with a single-loop design to more than 28 dB with a 10 loops-design). Lastly they developed a sensor based on the optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) in polymer optical fiber (POF). Basically, the macrobending entails a change of the backscattering in POF that can be sensed by the technique of OTDR [56]. This solution allows measuring strain in different locations of a single fiber (distributed measurement). A respiratory simulator was employed to test the robustness of both the macrobending sensor and the sensor based on the OTDR technique. Both these sensors show low variations after cycles at 10 breaths per minute and elongation up to 3% and 5% for the OTDR sensor and for the macrobending one, respectively. These sensors were also tested on healthy volunteers.

Bottom Line: Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing.In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages.Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrated Research, Università campus Bio-Medico, Alvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy. c.massaroni@unicampus.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

No MeSH data available.