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Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Schena E - J Funct Biomater (2015)

Bottom Line: Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing.In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages.Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrated Research, Università campus Bio-Medico, Alvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy. c.massaroni@unicampus.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using two fiber optic; (B) schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using a fiber optic and a mirror; (C) schematic of the light lost from the fiber core caused by bending (adapted from [10]).
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jfb-06-00204-f002: (A) Schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using two fiber optic; (B) schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using a fiber optic and a mirror; (C) schematic of the light lost from the fiber core caused by bending (adapted from [10]).

Mentions: Intensity-modulated FOSs modulate light intensity, measured by a secondary element (e.g., a photodiode), in response to an environmental effect. A simple configuration of this kind of sensor is shown in Figure 2A. Two optical fibers are held in close proximity to each other; the light is injected into one of the optical fibers; as the light expands into a cone of light, its intensity, emitted by the first fiber and conveyed into the other one, depends on the distance (d) between the two fiber tips. Therefore, the light intensity can be considered an indirect measurement of the distance between the two fibers and of other physical variables influencing this distance. A similar configuration can be designed either by using a single fiber and a mirror (Figure 2B) or by using more than one fiber to obtain a differential configuration. The differential solution allows neglecting the influence of the light source intensity on sensor output. Another configuration to develop intensity-modulated FOSs is underpinned by the phenomenon that the light is lost from an optical fiber when it is bent. In particular a bent radius causes a leakage of the light traveling within the core of the fiber into the cladding with a resulting intensity modulation of light propagating through an optical fiber (Figure 2C). Macrobending sensors based on hetero-core fibers have been proposed to measure several physical properties [38,39].


Medical smart textiles based on fiber optic technology: an overview.

Massaroni C, Saccomandi P, Schena E - J Funct Biomater (2015)

(A) Schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using two fiber optic; (B) schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using a fiber optic and a mirror; (C) schematic of the light lost from the fiber core caused by bending (adapted from [10]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493508&req=5

jfb-06-00204-f002: (A) Schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using two fiber optic; (B) schematic of the working principle of an intensity modulated sensor using a fiber optic and a mirror; (C) schematic of the light lost from the fiber core caused by bending (adapted from [10]).
Mentions: Intensity-modulated FOSs modulate light intensity, measured by a secondary element (e.g., a photodiode), in response to an environmental effect. A simple configuration of this kind of sensor is shown in Figure 2A. Two optical fibers are held in close proximity to each other; the light is injected into one of the optical fibers; as the light expands into a cone of light, its intensity, emitted by the first fiber and conveyed into the other one, depends on the distance (d) between the two fiber tips. Therefore, the light intensity can be considered an indirect measurement of the distance between the two fibers and of other physical variables influencing this distance. A similar configuration can be designed either by using a single fiber and a mirror (Figure 2B) or by using more than one fiber to obtain a differential configuration. The differential solution allows neglecting the influence of the light source intensity on sensor output. Another configuration to develop intensity-modulated FOSs is underpinned by the phenomenon that the light is lost from an optical fiber when it is bent. In particular a bent radius causes a leakage of the light traveling within the core of the fiber into the cladding with a resulting intensity modulation of light propagating through an optical fiber (Figure 2C). Macrobending sensors based on hetero-core fibers have been proposed to measure several physical properties [38,39].

Bottom Line: Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing.In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages.Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Integrated Research, Università campus Bio-Medico, Alvaro del Portillo, 21, Rome 00128, Italy. c.massaroni@unicampus.it.

ABSTRACT
The growing interest in the development of smart textiles for medical applications is driven by the aim to increase the mobility of patients who need a continuous monitoring of such physiological parameters. At the same time, the use of fiber optic sensors (FOSs) is gaining large acceptance as an alternative to traditional electrical and mechanical sensors for the monitoring of thermal and mechanical parameters. The potential impact of FOSs is related to their good metrological properties, their small size and their flexibility, as well as to their immunity from electromagnetic field. Their main advantage is the possibility to use textile based on fiber optic in a magnetic resonance imaging environment, where standard electronic sensors cannot be employed. This last feature makes FOSs suitable for monitoring biological parameters (e.g., respiratory and heartbeat monitoring) during magnetic resonance procedures. Research interest in combining FOSs and textiles into a single structure to develop wearable sensors is rapidly growing. In this review we provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of textiles, which use FOSs for monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest. In particular we briefly describe the working principle of FOSs employed in this field and their relevant advantages and disadvantages. Also reviewed are their applications for the monitoring of mechanical parameters of physiological interest.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus