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Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.


General approach for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). WWTP, wastewater treatment plant.
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pathogens-04-00307-f003: General approach for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). WWTP, wastewater treatment plant.

Mentions: Risk assessments involve five steps (Figure 3) [2,124,125,126,127]. (i) Hazard identification: consists in the identification and quality evaluation of the microbial hazard. This step takes into account the potential outcomes (health effects, disease outbreaks), pathogen properties (virulence, adaptation, resistance, and mutation) and hazard pathways; (ii) Exposure assessment: is the estimation of the duration of human exposures to pathogens by specific routes, the determination of the size and nature of the population exposed and the barrier reduction and recontamination on water; (iii) Dose-response assessment is the characterization of the relationship between dose and incidence of adverse effect in populations exposed to microbial pathogens. It comprises data of illness, secondary transmission and immunity in population. Typically, the dose-response is derived from studies of exposure of human volunteers to different doses of the pathogen or is based on previous outbreaks [127,128,129]. Factors influencing the dose-response are the exposure route, exposure medium pathogen strain host endpoint and the data source. Two commonly models are the beta-Poisson model and the exponential model, described elsewhere [2,125,130]; (iv) Risk characterization is the integration of information from hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment to estimate the magnitude of health effects; (v) Risk management and communication is a decision-making process based in all previous steps in risk assessment [2,125,126,127,128].


Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

General approach for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). WWTP, wastewater treatment plant.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493476&req=5

pathogens-04-00307-f003: General approach for quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). WWTP, wastewater treatment plant.
Mentions: Risk assessments involve five steps (Figure 3) [2,124,125,126,127]. (i) Hazard identification: consists in the identification and quality evaluation of the microbial hazard. This step takes into account the potential outcomes (health effects, disease outbreaks), pathogen properties (virulence, adaptation, resistance, and mutation) and hazard pathways; (ii) Exposure assessment: is the estimation of the duration of human exposures to pathogens by specific routes, the determination of the size and nature of the population exposed and the barrier reduction and recontamination on water; (iii) Dose-response assessment is the characterization of the relationship between dose and incidence of adverse effect in populations exposed to microbial pathogens. It comprises data of illness, secondary transmission and immunity in population. Typically, the dose-response is derived from studies of exposure of human volunteers to different doses of the pathogen or is based on previous outbreaks [127,128,129]. Factors influencing the dose-response are the exposure route, exposure medium pathogen strain host endpoint and the data source. Two commonly models are the beta-Poisson model and the exponential model, described elsewhere [2,125,130]; (iv) Risk characterization is the integration of information from hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and exposure assessment to estimate the magnitude of health effects; (v) Risk management and communication is a decision-making process based in all previous steps in risk assessment [2,125,126,127,128].

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.