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Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confocal scanning laser microscopic images. (A) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from water sources in the di-species biofilm of A. pleuropneumoniae 719 and S. suis 276 by FISH with an ApxIVAN-AlexaFluor 633 probe (red); (B) Bacterial cell in the biofilms were stained with FilmTracer ™ FM ® 1-43 (Molecular Probes) which are represented in green; (C) Yellow represents the co-localization of both the ApxIVAN probe and the stain FM 1-43; (D) 3D images of biofilm dual-species biofilms grown in BHI with NAD.
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pathogens-04-00307-f002: Confocal scanning laser microscopic images. (A) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from water sources in the di-species biofilm of A. pleuropneumoniae 719 and S. suis 276 by FISH with an ApxIVAN-AlexaFluor 633 probe (red); (B) Bacterial cell in the biofilms were stained with FilmTracer ™ FM ® 1-43 (Molecular Probes) which are represented in green; (C) Yellow represents the co-localization of both the ApxIVAN probe and the stain FM 1-43; (D) 3D images of biofilm dual-species biofilms grown in BHI with NAD.

Mentions: FISH or fluorescence in situ hybridization is based on hybridization of the sample with rRNA oligonucleotide probes labeled covalently at one end with fluorescent dye. This technique allows an enumeration of particular microbial cells by the use of confocal microscopy, fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry in order to obtain qualitative and quantitative results [97]. FISH is commonly used for the detection and identification of different microorganism in mixed populations such as in biofilms (Figure 2) and has been used to produce a quantitative description of the microbial community structure in activated sludge and wastewater [79,98], to study mechanisms of survival, infection at cellular level and detection of emerging pathogens from water, sewage and sludge [79]. One example is the two-color FISH assay, based on species-specific probes for C. parvum (Cpar 677 probe) and C. hominis (Chom253 probe), and has been shown to distinguish between the two species of concern to public health [33,99].


Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

Confocal scanning laser microscopic images. (A) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from water sources in the di-species biofilm of A. pleuropneumoniae 719 and S. suis 276 by FISH with an ApxIVAN-AlexaFluor 633 probe (red); (B) Bacterial cell in the biofilms were stained with FilmTracer ™ FM ® 1-43 (Molecular Probes) which are represented in green; (C) Yellow represents the co-localization of both the ApxIVAN probe and the stain FM 1-43; (D) 3D images of biofilm dual-species biofilms grown in BHI with NAD.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493476&req=5

pathogens-04-00307-f002: Confocal scanning laser microscopic images. (A) Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from water sources in the di-species biofilm of A. pleuropneumoniae 719 and S. suis 276 by FISH with an ApxIVAN-AlexaFluor 633 probe (red); (B) Bacterial cell in the biofilms were stained with FilmTracer ™ FM ® 1-43 (Molecular Probes) which are represented in green; (C) Yellow represents the co-localization of both the ApxIVAN probe and the stain FM 1-43; (D) 3D images of biofilm dual-species biofilms grown in BHI with NAD.
Mentions: FISH or fluorescence in situ hybridization is based on hybridization of the sample with rRNA oligonucleotide probes labeled covalently at one end with fluorescent dye. This technique allows an enumeration of particular microbial cells by the use of confocal microscopy, fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry in order to obtain qualitative and quantitative results [97]. FISH is commonly used for the detection and identification of different microorganism in mixed populations such as in biofilms (Figure 2) and has been used to produce a quantitative description of the microbial community structure in activated sludge and wastewater [79,98], to study mechanisms of survival, infection at cellular level and detection of emerging pathogens from water, sewage and sludge [79]. One example is the two-color FISH assay, based on species-specific probes for C. parvum (Cpar 677 probe) and C. hominis (Chom253 probe), and has been shown to distinguish between the two species of concern to public health [33,99].

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus