Limits...
Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.


Scanning electron micrograph of E. coli isolated from river water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493476&req=5

pathogens-04-00307-f001: Scanning electron micrograph of E. coli isolated from river water.

Mentions: In both culture and molecular methods, index pathogens for monitoring water quality have been selected in order to indicate the presence of a large amount of pathogens in water. Among these, E. coli (Figure 1) has been extensively used due to the fact that detection methods for these pathogens are relatively easy and inexpensive; nonetheless, they may have the disadvantage of not providing information on their host origin and, sometimes, they do not correlate with other pathogens present in the water, such as the viruses and protozoa. Thus, water characterized as pathogen-free by monitoring E. coli, for example, may be contaminated with viruses or protozoa [31].


Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges.

Ramírez-Castillo FY, Loera-Muro A, Jacques M, Garneau P, Avelar-González FJ, Harel J, Guerrero-Barrera AL - Pathogens (2015)

Scanning electron micrograph of E. coli isolated from river water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493476&req=5

pathogens-04-00307-f001: Scanning electron micrograph of E. coli isolated from river water.
Mentions: In both culture and molecular methods, index pathogens for monitoring water quality have been selected in order to indicate the presence of a large amount of pathogens in water. Among these, E. coli (Figure 1) has been extensively used due to the fact that detection methods for these pathogens are relatively easy and inexpensive; nonetheless, they may have the disadvantage of not providing information on their host origin and, sometimes, they do not correlate with other pathogens present in the water, such as the viruses and protozoa. Thus, water characterized as pathogen-free by monitoring E. coli, for example, may be contaminated with viruses or protozoa [31].

Bottom Line: Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally.Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms.This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Tisular, Departamento de Morfología, Centro de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20131, Mexico. flor.ramirez.castillo@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Waterborne pathogens and related diseases are a major public health concern worldwide, not only by the morbidity and mortality that they cause, but by the high cost that represents their prevention and treatment. These diseases are directly related to environmental deterioration and pollution. Despite the continued efforts to maintain water safety, waterborne outbreaks are still reported globally. Proper assessment of pathogens on water and water quality monitoring are key factors for decision-making regarding water distribution systems' infrastructure, the choice of best water treatment and prevention waterborne outbreaks. Powerful, sensitive and reproducible diagnostic tools are developed to monitor pathogen contamination in water and be able to detect not only cultivable pathogens but also to detect the occurrence of viable but non-culturable microorganisms as well as the presence of pathogens on biofilms. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a helpful tool to evaluate the scenarios for pathogen contamination that involve surveillance, detection methods, analysis and decision-making. This review aims to present a research outlook on waterborne outbreaks that have occurred in recent years. This review also focuses in the main molecular techniques for detection of waterborne pathogens and the use of QMRA approach to protect public health.

No MeSH data available.