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Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

Kitajima M, Gerba CP - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water.AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish.Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, 1117 E. Lowell St., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. kitajima@smart.mit.edu.

ABSTRACT
Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic relationship of Aichi virus 1 with representative species from each picornavirus genus, based on amino acid similarity of the P1 (viral structural proteins) region using the neighbor-joining method. The numbers on each branch indicate the bootstrap values obtained from a bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates, and the scale represents amino acid substitutions per site.
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pathogens-04-00256-f001: Phylogenetic relationship of Aichi virus 1 with representative species from each picornavirus genus, based on amino acid similarity of the P1 (viral structural proteins) region using the neighbor-joining method. The numbers on each branch indicate the bootstrap values obtained from a bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates, and the scale represents amino acid substitutions per site.

Mentions: The family Picornaviridae currently consists of 26 recognized genera (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ICTV; http://www.ictvonline.org/) and contains important human enteric viruses that can cause waterborne infections to humans, such as enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (Figure 1) [1]. Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), a human enteric virus belonging to the genus Kobuvirus, is also a member of the family Picornaviridae [2]. The genus Kobuvirus, which is a newly recognized genus, consists of three species: Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C, which were recently renamed and formerly called Aichi virus/Aichivirus, bovine kobuvirus, and porcine kobuviruses, respectively [3]. The species Aichivirus A consists of three genetically distinct members with different host species, namely, AiV-1 (Aichivirus in humans) [4], canine kobuvirus 1 [5], and murine kobuvirus 1 [6].


Aichi virus 1: environmental occurrence and behavior.

Kitajima M, Gerba CP - Pathogens (2015)

Phylogenetic relationship of Aichi virus 1 with representative species from each picornavirus genus, based on amino acid similarity of the P1 (viral structural proteins) region using the neighbor-joining method. The numbers on each branch indicate the bootstrap values obtained from a bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates, and the scale represents amino acid substitutions per site.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493473&req=5

pathogens-04-00256-f001: Phylogenetic relationship of Aichi virus 1 with representative species from each picornavirus genus, based on amino acid similarity of the P1 (viral structural proteins) region using the neighbor-joining method. The numbers on each branch indicate the bootstrap values obtained from a bootstrap analysis with 1000 replicates, and the scale represents amino acid substitutions per site.
Mentions: The family Picornaviridae currently consists of 26 recognized genera (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ICTV; http://www.ictvonline.org/) and contains important human enteric viruses that can cause waterborne infections to humans, such as enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus (Figure 1) [1]. Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), a human enteric virus belonging to the genus Kobuvirus, is also a member of the family Picornaviridae [2]. The genus Kobuvirus, which is a newly recognized genus, consists of three species: Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C, which were recently renamed and formerly called Aichi virus/Aichivirus, bovine kobuvirus, and porcine kobuviruses, respectively [3]. The species Aichivirus A consists of three genetically distinct members with different host species, namely, AiV-1 (Aichivirus in humans) [4], canine kobuvirus 1 [5], and murine kobuvirus 1 [6].

Bottom Line: Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water.AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish.Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, The University of Arizona, 1117 E. Lowell St., Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. kitajima@smart.mit.edu.

ABSTRACT
Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus