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Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fraction of the emissions caused by population from the age categories under five and over five for Nigeria (top) and the UK (bottom).
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pathogens-04-00229-f003: Fraction of the emissions caused by population from the age categories under five and over five for Nigeria (top) and the UK (bottom).

Mentions: We have also studied the differences in emissions between age groups. Children under two years of age are more susceptible to RV and they shed much more viruses in their feces than other age groups, who often have more asymptomatic shedding. Figure 3 provides the pie charts for Nigeria and the UK. The difference between both countries is remarkable. In Nigeria the population younger than five years of age is responsible for 80% of the emissions, while in the UK the same age category only produces 21% of the emissions. The main variables driving this difference are the higher percentage of children under five years of age in Nigeria (17.5% compared to 6.3% in the UK), the RV incidence rate in children under five that is assumed to be higher in Nigeria (0.24) than in the UK (0.08) and the assumption that in the UK all children under 2.5 years of age wear nappies, while in Nigeria only the children under 2.5 years of age with access to a sewer do.


Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Fraction of the emissions caused by population from the age categories under five and over five for Nigeria (top) and the UK (bottom).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493472&req=5

pathogens-04-00229-f003: Fraction of the emissions caused by population from the age categories under five and over five for Nigeria (top) and the UK (bottom).
Mentions: We have also studied the differences in emissions between age groups. Children under two years of age are more susceptible to RV and they shed much more viruses in their feces than other age groups, who often have more asymptomatic shedding. Figure 3 provides the pie charts for Nigeria and the UK. The difference between both countries is remarkable. In Nigeria the population younger than five years of age is responsible for 80% of the emissions, while in the UK the same age category only produces 21% of the emissions. The main variables driving this difference are the higher percentage of children under five years of age in Nigeria (17.5% compared to 6.3% in the UK), the RV incidence rate in children under five that is assumed to be higher in Nigeria (0.24) than in the UK (0.08) and the assumption that in the UK all children under 2.5 years of age wear nappies, while in Nigeria only the children under 2.5 years of age with access to a sewer do.

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus