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Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fraction of the emissions caused by population with access to the different sanitation types for Nigeria (top) and UK (bottom).
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pathogens-04-00229-f002: Fraction of the emissions caused by population with access to the different sanitation types for Nigeria (top) and UK (bottom).

Mentions: The difference in access to sanitation types is immediately visible when looking at the fraction of emissions caused by people with access to the different sanitation types (Figure 2). In both regions, the majority of the emissions comes from urban areas (85% in Nigeria; 84% in the UK). In Nigeria, 59% are direct emissions, but since there is no treatment, also the emissions from the population connected to sewers are actually direct emissions. Rural emissions are mostly from the population connected to sewers (5% in Nigeria and 16% in the UK) and direct emissions (8% in Nigeria). Only a small part of the emissions in Nigeria (2%) are diffuse emissions. This number is relatively low; the percentage of the feces on the land that enters the surface water is assumed to be only 2.5% (see Section 4.2).


Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Fraction of the emissions caused by population with access to the different sanitation types for Nigeria (top) and UK (bottom).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493472&req=5

pathogens-04-00229-f002: Fraction of the emissions caused by population with access to the different sanitation types for Nigeria (top) and UK (bottom).
Mentions: The difference in access to sanitation types is immediately visible when looking at the fraction of emissions caused by people with access to the different sanitation types (Figure 2). In both regions, the majority of the emissions comes from urban areas (85% in Nigeria; 84% in the UK). In Nigeria, 59% are direct emissions, but since there is no treatment, also the emissions from the population connected to sewers are actually direct emissions. Rural emissions are mostly from the population connected to sewers (5% in Nigeria and 16% in the UK) and direct emissions (8% in Nigeria). Only a small part of the emissions in Nigeria (2%) are diffuse emissions. This number is relatively low; the percentage of the feces on the land that enters the surface water is assumed to be only 2.5% (see Section 4.2).

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus