Limits...
Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total RV emissions in log10 viral particles per grid (based on data for approximately the year 2010).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493472&req=5

pathogens-04-00229-f001: Total RV emissions in log10 viral particles per grid (based on data for approximately the year 2010).

Mentions: We have used the excretion rates and removal fractions distilled from the literature in Section 2.1.1 to develop the GloWPa-Rota model. This model is explained in detail in Section 4.2. The model was used to produce an emission map (Figure 1). This map shows the global distribution of human RV emissions per 0.5 × 0.5 latitude × longitude grid (based on 2010 data for population, access to sanitation and waste water treatment (none, primary, primary + secondary, or primary + secondary + tertiary). Total global RV emissions are 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Urban areas also stand out in Figure 1. High emissions are observed in urban areas in Bangladesh, East China, India, Korea, Turkey, Nigeria, the northern part of Algeria, the UK, Belgium, Mexico, Colombia and coastal Brazil. Low emissions are observed in rural areas in Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, China, the Sahel and Australia. Main drivers for the spatial differences in emissions are population size in a grid, sanitation type and removal by wastewater treatment plants.


Global occurrence and emission of rotaviruses to surface waters.

Kiulia NM, Hofstra N, Vermeulen LC, Obara MA, Medema G, Rose JB - Pathogens (2015)

Total RV emissions in log10 viral particles per grid (based on data for approximately the year 2010).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493472&req=5

pathogens-04-00229-f001: Total RV emissions in log10 viral particles per grid (based on data for approximately the year 2010).
Mentions: We have used the excretion rates and removal fractions distilled from the literature in Section 2.1.1 to develop the GloWPa-Rota model. This model is explained in detail in Section 4.2. The model was used to produce an emission map (Figure 1). This map shows the global distribution of human RV emissions per 0.5 × 0.5 latitude × longitude grid (based on 2010 data for population, access to sanitation and waste water treatment (none, primary, primary + secondary, or primary + secondary + tertiary). Total global RV emissions are 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Urban areas also stand out in Figure 1. High emissions are observed in urban areas in Bangladesh, East China, India, Korea, Turkey, Nigeria, the northern part of Algeria, the UK, Belgium, Mexico, Colombia and coastal Brazil. Low emissions are observed in rural areas in Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, China, the Sahel and Australia. Main drivers for the spatial differences in emissions are population size in a grid, sanitation type and removal by wastewater treatment plants.

Bottom Line: To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so.We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population.Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. kiuliani@msu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Group A rotaviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children globally. Waterborne transmission of RV and the presence of RV in water sources are of major public health importance. In this paper, we present the Global Waterborne Pathogen model for RV (GloWPa-Rota model) to estimate the global distribution of RV emissions to surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first model to do so. We review the literature to estimate three RV specific variables for the model: incidence, excretion rate and removal during wastewater treatment. We estimate total global RV emissions to be 2 × 1018 viral particles/grid/year, of which 87% is produced by the urban population. Hotspot regions with high RV emissions are urban areas in densely populated parts of the world, such as Bangladesh and Nigeria, while low emissions are found in rural areas in North Russia and the Australian desert. Even for industrialized regions with high population density and without tertiary treatment, such as the UK, substantial emissions are estimated. Modeling exercises like the one presented in this paper provide unique opportunities to further study these emissions to surface water, their sources and scenarios for improved management.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus